United States Health Care System Assignment

March 1, 2022

United States Health Care System Assignment

United States Health Care System Assignment

United States Health Care System Assignment

Prepare a paper that addresses the following issues.

  • Evaluate the main strengths and weaknesses of the U.S. health care system.
  • What should the U.S. health care system look like?

Your United States Health Care System Assignment paper should include the following:

  • Four to six pages in length, not including the title and reference pages.
  • Three to five peer reviewed references cited in the assignment. Remember, you must support your thinking/opinions and prior knowledge with references; all facts must be supported; in-text references used throughout the assignment must be included in an APA-formatted reference list. (References should be current, not more than five years old; additional references articles from the popular press such as the WSJ and Washington Post should also be considered.)
  • Review the grading rubric, which can be accessed from the Course Information page.
  • Formatted according to APA Requirements.
  • Reach out to your instructor if you have questions about the assignment.

Health care in the United States is provided by many distinct organizations, made up of insurance companies, healthcare providers, hospital systems, and independent providers.[1][2] Health care facilities are largely owned and operated by private sector businesses. 58% of community hospitals in the United States are non-profit, 21% are government-owned, and 21% are for-profit.[3] According to the World Health Organization (WHO), the United States spent $9,403 on health care per capita, and 17.9% on health care as percentage of its GDP in 2014. Healthcare coverage is provided through a combination of private health insurance and public health coverage (e.g., Medicare, Medicaid). The United States does not have a universal healthcare program, unlike most other developed countries.[4][5]

In 2013, 64% of health spending was paid for by the government,[6][7] and funded via programs such as Medicare, Medicaid, the Children’s Health Insurance Program, Tricare, and the Veterans Health Administration. People aged under 65 acquire insurance via

United States Health Care System Assignment

United States Health Care System Assignment

their or a family member’s employer, by purchasing health insurance on their own, getting government and/or other assistance based on income or another condition, or are uninsured. Health insurance for public sector employees is primarily provided by the government in its role as employer.[8] Managed care, where payers use various techniques intended to improve quality and limit cost, has become ubiquitous.

The United States life expectancy is 78.6 years at birth, up from 75.2 years in 1990; this ranks 42nd among 224 nations, and 22nd out of the 35 industrialized OECD countries, down from 20th in 1990.[9][10] In 2016 and 2017 life expectancy in the United States dropped for the first time since 1993.[11] Of 17 high-income countries studied by the National Institutes of Health, the United States in 2013 had the highest or near-highest prevalence of obesity, car accidents, infant mortality, heart and lung disease, sexually transmitted infections, adolescent pregnancies, injuries, and homicides.[12] A 2017 survey of the healthcare systems of 11 developed countries found the US healthcare system to be the most expensive and worst-performing in terms of health access, efficiency, and equity.[13] In a 2018 study, the USA ranked 29th in healthcare access and quality.[14]

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The rate of adults uninsured for health care peaked at 18.0% in 2013 prior to the ACA mandate, fell to 10.9% in the third quarter of 2016, and stood at 13.7% in the fourth quarter of 2018, based on surveys by the Gallup organization beginning in 2008.[15] At over 27 million, the number of people without health insurance coverage in the United States is one of the primary concerns raised by advocates of health care reform. A 2009 study done at Harvard Medical School with Cambridge Health Alliance by co-founders of Physicians for a National Health Program, a pro-single payer lobbying group, showed that nearly 45,000 annual deaths are associated with a lack of patient health insurance. The study also found that uninsured, working Americans have an approximately 40% higher mortality risk compared to privately insured working Americans.[16]

In 2010, the Affordable Care Act (formally known as the “Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act”, and commonly known as “Obamacare”) became law, enacting major changes in health insurance. The Supreme Court of the United States upheld the constitutionality of most of the law in June 2012 and affirmed insurance exchange subsidies in all states in June 2015.[17]

The Human Rights Measurement Initiative[18] finds that the US is achieving 81.3% of what should be possible at their income level for fulfilling the right to health.

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