The Development of The Emergency Management Summary

March 8, 2022
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The Development of The Emergency Management Summary

The Development of The Emergency Management Summary

Help me study for my Science class. I’m stuck and don’t understand.

Course Introduction
Through the use of this course, exercise program managers can learn to develop, execute, and evaluate exercises that address the priorities established by an organization’s leaders. These priorities are based on the National Preparedness Goal, strategy documents, threat and hazard identification/risk assessment processes, capability assessments, and the results from previous exercises and real-world events. These priorities guide the overall direction of a progressive exercise program, where individual exercises are anchored to a common set of priorities or objectives and build toward an increasing level of complexity over time.
Accordingly, these priorities guide the design and development of individual exercises, as planners identify exercise objectives and align them to core capabilities for evaluation during the exercise. Exercise evaluation assesses the ability to meet exercise objectives and capabilities by documenting strengths, areas for improvement, core capability performance, and corrective actions in an After-Action Report/Improvement Plan (AAR/IP). Through improvement planning, organizations take the corrective actions needed to improve plans, build and sustain capabilities, and maintain readiness.
The use of the Homeland Security Exercise and Evaluation Program (HSEEP)—in line with the National Preparedness Goal and the National Preparedness System—supports efforts across the whole community that improve our national capacity to build, sustain, and deliver core capabilities.
This course is designed to introduce you to the fundamentals of exercise design and to prepare you to design and conduct exercises consistent with the Homeland Security Exercise and Evaluation Program (HSEEP) doctrine.
The prerequisite for this course is IS 120.c Introduction to Exercises.

Course Overview
This course contains six lessons.
Lesson 1, Exercise Design Considerations, discusses the overall design considerations including the basic components of an exercise program, a well as the types and characteristics of both discussion-based and operations-based exercises.
Lesson 2, Exercise Planning Team, explains the different considerations needed when selecting the members of a design team; including the specific roles of planning team members and how they relate to the elements of an exercise scope.
Lesson 3, Capability-Based Exercise Objective Development, concentrates on the objectives of an exercise and how they impact the core capabilities.
Lesson 4, Scenario and Master Scenario Events List Development, explains the basic elements and functions of a scenario and how to create a Master Scenario Events List (MSEL).
Lesson 5, Exercise Documentation, describes the audience and purpose of the key exercise design and development documents.
Lesson 6, Additional Enhancements, explains the purpose and types of exercise enhancements, as well as what considerations are to be taken when selecting specific enhancements.

Course Objectives
After completing this course, you will be able to:
Define reasons to design and complete exercises.
Identify the members of an exercise design team.
Compile exercise objectives.
Determine evaluation elements of the exercise.
Understand how to develop exercise scenarios.
Identify the correct documents for the exercise.

Summary
Having completed this section, you are able to:
Navigate the course correctly.
Understand course objectives.
Understand receiving credit for the course.

 

Lesson 1 Objectives
At the end of this lesson you will be able to:
Identify the basic components of an exercise program.
Identify the types of exercises as defined by HSEEP.

Progressive Exercising
A progressive exercise program is a series of exercises tied to a set of common program priorities. Each exercise builds on previous exercises using more sophisticated simulation techniques or requiring more preparation, time, personnel and planning.
Progressive exercising is a scalable approach, where exercises that build upon each other are developed.
Functional exercises require:
Participants
Simulators/Controllers
Evaluators
A community or an organization engages in a progressive exercise when the goal requires a comprehensive approach from every type of responding agency (e.g. police, fire, hospitals).
Participants are determined based on the exercise needs and jurisdiction. Exercises might scale up to engage the whole community, or the population might be limited down to just key stakeholders.

Careful Planning
Clearly-defined goals set the tone for the careful planning of design and development. Those goals help set the priorities and focus on figuring out what works and what requires improvement when it comes to emergency operations.
The scale of complexity with exercises starts with the least-complex discussion-based exercises such as seminars and tabletop exercises (TTX). Discussion-based exercises serve to inform participants of (or help develop) plans, policies, agreements, and procedures.
Medium complexity starts with operational exercises such as workshops.
The most-complex exercises are typically full-scale exercises (FSEs). Medium and high complexity is used when validating functional response actions where plans, policies, agreements, and procedures are implemented as if responding to an actual incident.

Success Breeds Success
As each progressive exercise shows success, this ensures:
Officials/stakeholders trust and are willing to commit resources.
Personnel regards future exercises positively.
The confidence of the organization and community builds.
Operating skills improve.

Exercise Complexity
There are various types of exercises that can be employed to prepare for real-world scenarios and emergencies. Exercises can be low, medium, or high complexity.

 

C&O Meeting – Tools and Outcomes
The primary tool for a C&O meeting is a read-ahead packet for participants. This packet usually includes the agenda and background briefing.
Outcomes from a C&O Meeting include:
Exercise concept
Exercise timeframe
Extent of participation
Identification of planning team members
Planning timeline, milestones, and meeting dates
As a follow-up, meeting minutes should be compiled and sent to each participant within four working days of the meeting conclusion.

Why the planning Team Structure is important.
The Exercise Planning Team manages and is responsible for these aspects of an exercise:
Design
Development
Conduct
Evaluation

The size of the team will vary depending on the type and scale of the exercise. Exercise planners may elect to use the Incident Command System (ICS) structure when establishing the structure and organization of the planning team (see organization chart).
A team consists of a Lead Exercise Planner and planning team members. The team lead has complete management responsibility, assigning tasks to team members and ensuring the successful execution of the exercise.
The team size should:
Be kept manageable but represent a full range of participating organizations and other relevant stakeholders.
Include whole community stakeholders such as:
First responders/support agencies
Advocacy groups
Those with limited English language proficiency
In addition, Subject Matter Experts (SMEs) bring functional knowledge from their area of expertise.

The Incident Command System (ICS) structure includes the Exercise Planning Team Leader, or Command level, Operations, Planning, Logistics, and Administrative functional areas. The Safety Officer ensure safety procedures and safe practices are followed.
Planning Team flowchart. At the top is the Exercise Planning Team Leader, who is responsible for all planning team functions. The team is broken into sub-teams on which to focus. The purpose of these sub-teams is to divide the exercise functions and are all on the same level. They are Operations, which includes Site Liaison and Resources, Planning, which includes Exercise Documentation and Evaluation, Logistics, which includes Props and Actors, and Admin/Finance, which includes Reporting and Budgeting. A safety officer or team is always needed for operations-based exercises and falls under the purview of the Exercise Planning Team Leader as well.

Planning Team Responsibilities
The exercise planning team size should be kept manageable but represent a full range of participating organizations and other relevant stakeholders. It is important to include whole community stakeholders, such as first responders/support agencies, advocacy groups, and those with limited English language proficiency. In addition, Subject Matter Experts (SMEs) bring functional knowledge from their area of expertise.
The Exercise Planning Team responsibilities include:
Determine exercise objectives, evaluation plan, and control, and simulation systems
Design, develop, conduct and evaluate results of exercise
Develop scenario, Exercise Evaluation Guides (EEGs), and other exercise documentation
Plan logistics for exercise conduct
Identify, create, and distributes pre-exercise materials

Subject Matter Experts (SMEs) and Trusted Agents
SMEs contribute to the exercise planning team by:
Adding expertise to the exercise planning team
Providing functional knowledge for player-specific tasks evaluated through objectives
Helping make the scenario realistic and plausible
Ensuring appropriate evaluation of capabilities
Trusted agents:
Are individuals who understand that confidentiality must be preserved to maintain the integrity of the exercise.
All members of the exercise planning team are trusted agents.
Team members must not reveal details or share insight in order to protect the integrity and confidentiality of the exercise and evaluation process.
This is especially important to those team members who may also serve as controllers or evaluators during exercise conduct.

Successful Planning Teams and Planning Team Roles and Responsibilities
Successful Planning Teams
Regardless of the size or scope of an exercise, an exercise planning team performs best with a clear organizational structure which clearly defines roles, responsibilities, and functional requirements for each role or position on the planning team.
Tips for creating a successful planning team:
Define roles, responsibilities, and functional requirements
Engage elected and appointed officials and whole community leadership in exercise planning
Use project management principles
Follow standardized process
Organize the team using NIMS Incident Command System (ICS) or other structure that defines support roles for each team member
Planning Team Roles and Responsibilities
Exercise planning team members are responsible for the exercise design and development, conduct of the exercise, and exercise evaluation. Based on elected and appointed officials’ guidance and program priorities, the team will establish exercise objectives and determine the core capabilities to be assessed during exercise play. Next, the team is responsible for creating a realistic scenario to assess the identified capabilities and objectives. As mentioned earlier, SMEs play a big role in creating plausible scenarios. The team develops supporting documentation for the exercise as well as process documentation, control and simulation documentation, and customized evaluation packets for participants. Team members also help with building and distributing pre-exercise materials and conducting exercise planning meetings, briefings, and training sessions. Keep in mind that being part of an exercise planning team is usually a collateral duty. It is very important to ensure candidates can make the commitment to actively participate throughout the process.

Exercise Program: Why it is important
Planning at the program level is required to ensure successful exercise process implementation.
Segmenting requirements by task level help visualize exercise and program components.
Exercise process is organized by task sequence, task categories and phases provide clarification.

Exercise Program: Basic Components
Initial Planning Meeting (IPM)
Identify Costs and Liabilities
Gain Senior Leader Support
Exercise Planning Team
Execute the Exercise Process

Exercise Foundation Key Documentation
Threat and Hazard Identification and Risk Assessment (THIRA)
Rolling Summary Report
Multiyear Training Exercise Plan (TEP)
After Action Report

Exercise Foundation Key Documentation: THIRA
Threat and Hazard Identification and Risk Assessment (THIRA)
A tool used to assess an organization or jurisdiction’s objectives against performance thresholds to validate successful completion of critical tasks associated with targeted core capabilities.

Exercise Foundation Key Documentation: Multiyear Exercise Plan (TEP)
Based on a set of strategic, high-level priorities selected by Organization’s elected and appointed officials
Priorities guide the development of exercise objectives
Training and exercise program actions are implemented as Discussion-based and Functional exercises

See HSEEP document here.

Exercise Foundation Key Documentation: After Action Report
Qualitative summary designed to identify potential corrective actions in exercises or real-world events.
The AAR is a draft improvement plan (IP) which is developed for an After Action Meeting (AAM).
A final AAR is created once participants reach final consensus strengths and areas to improve.

Concept and Objectives (C&O) Meeting
The Concept and Objectives (C&O) meeting marks the formal beginning of the exercise planning process. Elected and appointed officials, representatives from all supporting organizations, and the exercise planning team leader attend the C&O meeting. Based on guidance from elected/appointed officials, exercise program priorities are defined and objectives are determined and aligned to core capabilities. In addition, the remainder of the exercise planning team members is identified.
Meeting Focus Discussion Points Exercise Tools Exercise Outcomes Follow-up
Formal beginning of the planning process
Identify the scope and objectives of the exercise Exercise scope
Proposed exercise objectives and their aligned core capabilities
Proposed exercise location, date, and duration
Participants and anticipated extent of play for exercise participants
Exercise planning team
Exercise assumptions and artificialities
Exercise control and evaluation concepts
Exercise security organizations and structure
Available exercise resources
Exercise logistics
Exercise planning timeline and milestones
Local issues, concerns, and sensitivities Meeting agenda
Background briefing Exercise concept
Exercise timeline (group consensus)
Extent of participant play
Identification of planning team members
Planning timeline, milestones, and meeting dates
Meeting minutes compiled and sent to participants within four (4) days

 

Initial Planning Meeting (IPM)
The Initial Planning Meeting (IPM) marks the formal beginning of the exercise development phase. Its purpose is to determine exercise scope by getting intent and direction from elected and appointed officials, and gathering input from the exercise planning team; and to identify exercise design requirements and conditions (e.g., assumptions and artificialities), exercise objectives, participant extent of play, and scenario variables (e.g., time, location, hazard selection). The IPM is also used to develop exercise documentation by obtaining the planning team’s input on exercise location, schedule, duration, and other relevant details.
During the IPM, exercise planning team members are assigned responsibility for activities associated with designing and developing exercise documents, such as the Exercise Plan (ExPlan) and the Situation Manual (SitMan), and coordinating exercise logistics.
Meeting Focus Discussion Points Exercise Tools Exercise Outcomes Follow-up
Formal beginning of the development phase
Identify the scope and objectives of the exercise Clearly defined exercise objectives and aligned core capabilities
Evaluation requirements, including EEG capability targets and critical tasks
Relevant plans, policies, and procedures to be evaluated in the exercise
Exercise scenario
Modeling and simulation planning
Extent of play for each participating organization
Optimum duration of the exercise
Exercise planners’ roles and responsibilities
Decision to record exercise proceedings (audio or video)
Local issues, concerns, or sensitivities
Any discussion points typically covered during a C&O Meeting if a C&O Meeting was not conducted
Consensus regarding the date, time, and location for the next meeting. These items should be provided at least five (5) days prior to the scheduled meeting:
Read-ahead packet
The meeting agenda
Core capabilities
Hazard and threat information (where applicable to the exercise)
For discussion-based exercises: the proposed room layout
For operations-based exercises: a map of the proposed exercise venue, including a description of the local environment
A copy of the proposed project timeline and milestones for exercise design and development
Copies of the presentation briefing to be used at the meeting Any outcomes from the C&O meeting
Clearly defined exercise objectives and aligned core capabilities
Initial capability targets and critical tasks, which will be reviewed and confirmed prior to the next meeting
Identified exercise scenario variables (e.g., threat scenario, scope of hazard, venue, conditions)
A list of participating exercise organizations and anticipated organizational extent of play
Draft SitMan or ExPlan
Identification and availability of all source documents (e.g., policies, plans, procedures) needed to draft exercise documents and presentations
A refined exercise planning timeline with milestones
Identification and availability of SMEs, as necessary, for scenario vetting and/or expert evaluation
Determination of preferred communication methods among the exercise planning team
Clearly identified and assigned responsibility for exercise logistical issues
A list of tasks to be accomplished by the next planning meeting with established dates for completion and responsible planning team members identified
An agreed-upon date, time, and location for the next planning meeting and the actual exercise Compile and distribute the IPM meeting minutes, including the next meeting date, time, and location
Between meetings: Planning Team collaborates on assignments and prepares draft of exercise documentation
Distribute draft documentation prior to the next scheduled meeting

 

IPM – Discussion Points
Discussion Points:
Exercise objectives and core capabilities
Evaluation requirements, including Exercise Evaluation Guides (EEGs)
Relevant plans, policies, and procedures
Exercise scenario
Modeling and simulation planning
Extent of play (time, date, and location)

Midterm Planning Meeting (MPM)
Midterm Planning Meetings (MPMs) provide additional opportunities to engage elected and appointed officials and to settle logistical and organizational issues that may arise during exercise planning. A walkthrough of the exercise site or venue will be conducted during this meeting.
If only three planning meetings are held (i.e., IPM, MPM, and Final Planning Meeting [FPM]), a portion of the MPM should be devoted to developing the Master Scenario Exercise List (MSEL).
Meeting Focus Discussion Points Exercise Tools Exercise Outcomes Follow-up
Re-engage elected and appointed officials (prior to the meeting)
This allows the planning team leader to keep officials up to date with progress to date, answer any questions they may have, and ensure alignment with guidance and intent
Exercise organization
Scenario and timeline development
Logistics and administrative requirements Comments on draft exercise documentation
Construction of the scenario timeline—usually the MSEL—if an additional MSEL Planning Meeting will not be held
Identification of exercise venue artificialities and/or limitations
Agreement on final logistical items
Assignment of additional responsibilities As with all meetings, a read-ahead packet should be delivered to all participants at least five (5) days prior to the MPM.
Tools included in the packet include, but are not limited to:
A meeting agenda
IPM meeting minutes
Draft scenario timeline
Draft documentation (ExPlan, Controller/Evaluator [C/E] Handbook)
Other selected documentation needed to illustrate exercise concepts and provide planning guidance
Reviewed or final exercise documentation (as applicable)
Draft Facilitator Guide or C/E Handbook, including the EEGs
Well-developed scenario to include injects (if no MSEL Planning Meeting is scheduled)
Agreement on the exercise site
Identified logistics planning requirements
Finalization of date, time, and location on the MSEL Planning Meeting and/or Final Planning Meeting Compile and distribute the MPM meeting minutes, including the next meeting date, time, and location
Between meetings: Planning Team collaborates on assignments and prepares draft of exercise documentation
Distribute draft documentation prior to the next scheduled meeting

 

IPM – Tools
Tools are necessary to guide the IPM. Most importantly, read-ahead materials and the meeting agenda should be provided to all meeting participants at least five days prior to the meeting.
Read-ahead packets should include the following items:
The meeting agenda
A list of capabilities and tasks from the Exercise Evaluation Guides (EEGs) or copies of the EEGs that pertain to the capabilities to be validated
Hazard information (where applicable to the exercise)
For discussion-based exercises: the proposed room layout
For operations-based exercises: a map of the proposed exercise venue, including a description of the local environment
A copy of the proposed project timeline for exercise design and development
Copies of the presentation briefing to be used at the meeting
Providing these materials in advance sets a pro-active stance for this and possibly other meetings that may follow. Team members can review, take notes, and formulate ideas and arrive prepared to contribute to the effort, making the most of the face-to-face meeting time available.

IPM – Meeting Outcomes
At the completion of the IPM, the desired outcomes are:
Any outcomes listed in the C&O meeting section if a C&O meeting was not conducted.
Clearly defined exercise objectives and aligned core capabilities.
Initial capability targets and critical tasks (These tasks will be reviewed and confirmed prior to the next planning meeting).
Identified exercise scenario variables, such as threat scenario, scope of hazard, venue, or conditions.
A list of participating exercise organizations and anticipated organizational extent of play.
Draft Situation Manual (SitMan) or Exercise Plan (ExPlan).
Identification and availability of all source documents (e.g., policies, plans, procedures) needed to draft exercise documents and presentations.
A refined exercise planning timeline with milestones.
Identification and availability of SMEs, as necessary, for scenario vetting and/or expert evaluation.
Determination of preferred communication methods among the exercise planning team.
Clearly identified and assigned responsibility for exercise logistical issues.
A list of tasks to be accomplished by the next planning meeting with established dates for completion and responsible planning team members identified.
An agreed-upon date, time, and location for the next planning meeting and the actual exercise.

IPM Meeting – Follow-up
Follow-up activities:
Compile and distribute the IPM meeting minutes, including the next meeting date, time, and location
Between meetings: Planning Team collaborates on assignments and prepares draft of exercise documentation
Distribute draft documentation prior to the next scheduled meeting

Exercise Program: Master Scenario Events List Meeting
For more complex exercises, one or more additional planning meetings—or MSEL Meetings—may be held to review the scenario timeline. If not held separately, topics typically covered in a separate MSEL Meeting can be incorporated into the MPM and FPM.

The MSEL Meeting focuses on developing the MSEL—a chronological list that supplements the exercise scenario with:
Event synopses.
Expected participant responses.
Objectives and core capabilities to be addressed.
Responsible personnel.
It includes specific scenario events (or injects) that prompt players to implement the plans, policies, procedures, and protocols and records the methods that will be used to provide the injects (e.g., phone call, radio call, e-mail).

Final Planning Meeting
The Final Planning Meeting (FPM) is the final forum for reviewing exercise processes and procedures.
Both before and after the FPM, the exercise team leader should engage elected and appointed officials to ensure that the exercise is aligning with their intent, address any questions, and receive any last-minute guidance.
The FPM ensures that all logistical requirements have been met, outstanding issues have been identified and resolved, and exercise products are ready for printing.

Gain Leader Support
Involve the highest possible official in exercise planning early on to establish authority.
Gain support for the entire exercise program
Protect the organization
“Sell” the process Announce the exercise

Exercise Program Guidelines
Establish a base
Define the exercise scope and identify limitations
Address the costs and liabilities
Funding
Human Resources
Organizational liabilities

 

Lesson 1 Summary: Objectives
You should now be able to:
Identify the basic components of an exercise program.
Identify the types of exercises as defined by HSEEP.
Key Points Summary
Progressive exercising, where exercises are built to support each other and increase in complexity from low to high, is the preferred method of building an exercise plan. This method helps build trust with stakeholders and officials while avoiding the rush into more time and resource-intensive exercises.
Lower-complexity exercises include discussion-based exercises such as seminars, workshops, tabletop exercises (TTX), and games. Higher-complexity exercises tend to be operations-based ones such as drills, functional exercises, and full-scale exercises. The exercise process starts with the Initial Planning Meeting (IPM) where goals and objectives are set and aligned to core capabilities.
The Exercise Planning Team is selected based on the needs of the exercise which includes SMEs, and Emergency Manager/appointee, and a key participant from each department involved. An exercise schedule is set to help all stakeholders view and monitor tasks and resources while costs and liabilities are considered. The evaluation critiques and guidelines are set up and key documentation is consulted and maintained such as THIRA, Rolling Summary Report, Multi-Year Exercise Plan, and After-Action Report.

 

 

 

 

 

 

Lesson 2 Objectives
At the end of this lesson you will be able to:
Indicate considerations when selecting members of the design team.
Associate the roles and responsibilities of specific exercise planning team members.
Identify the elements of an exercise scope.

 

Assembling a Design Team
Planning Team Structure
The exercise planning team manages and is responsible for exercise design, development, conduct, and evaluation of an exercise. The size of the team will vary depending on the type and scale of the exercise. Exercise planners may elect to use the Incident Command System (ICS) structure when establishing the structure and organization of the planning team (see organization chart).
A team consists of a Lead Exercise Planner, or exercise director, and planning team members. The Exercise Director should be a person that has been given the authority to make decisions for the sponsoring organization. Furthermore, the exercise director provides direction and oversight of the planning team members. The Lead Exercise Planner has complete management responsibility, assigning tasks to team members and ensuring the successful execution of the exercise.

 

 

 

Lead Exercise Planner
Devotes significant time throughout an exercise cycle.
Is experienced and capable.
Is familiar with the emergency plan.
Has a sound understanding of response participating organizations.
Is not a key member of any participating organization.

Exercise Planning Team Members
Other candidates within the design team include at least one representative from each participating jurisdiction and each key department.
Member backgrounds should vary to help with coordination and stimulate creativity with exercise development.

Exercise Planning Team Members’ Responsibilities
To assist the team leader in developing content and procedures for the exercise.
To determine exercise objectives.
To tailor the scenario to the needs of each department.
To develop a sequence of events and the associated messages.
To assist in development and distribution of pre-exercise materials.
To help conduct pre-exercise training sessions.
To act as potential simulators and/or controllers within each exercise.

Scheduling Tool: Gantt Chart
One way to organize the schedule among team members is to have a Gantt chart, exhibiting deliverables, the timeframe to develop them, and when they are due. This ensures team communication and proper planning for exercise material development.

Scope
When the scope is defined, it informs the team’s decisions. A scope consists of: the audience, number (or range) of individuals acting, those who are affected, the hazard(s) involved, and the resources required.
Keeping the Scope Realistic
When defining the scope, the design team must keep it realistic. They must be able to clearly define the problem and set priorities for the exercise. For example, an organization might exhibit weaknesses in communicating emergency evacuation procedures, and therefore the exercise might prioritize communication systems within the scope to keep it realistic. This type of focus informs the team’s choices in all aspects of exercise design and development.

Lesson 2 Summary: Objectives
Now you should be able to:
Indicate considerations when selecting members of the design team.
Associate the roles and responsibilities of specific exercise planning team members.
Identify the elements of an exercise scope.
Key Points Summary
An exercise design team consists of a team leader, either the Emergency Manager or a representative, and representatives from each participating organization.
The team is responsible for determining the exercise objectives, developing and tailoring the sequence of events and associated messages within the scenar

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