SOCY 101 Sociology Race and Racism

March 8, 2022
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SOCY 101 Sociology Race and Racism

SOCY 101 Sociology Race and Racism

In this paper you will review Part 3 by re-applying your learning to each module’s reading.
Please follow the paragraph structure outlined below, and please address every outlined question. Each paragraph
should reflect approximately one page of writing, with the entire paper constituting a streamlined 4-page narrative
This paper is due on Friday 12/17 at 8am. Given the end of term, no late assignments or re-writes will be
Paragraph 1: Sociology of Race and Racism (see Writing Assignment #9)
• According to the module’s lecture, what is “race”?
• According to the module’s lecture, what is “racism”?
• According to the module’s lecture, what are the 3 sociological approaches to the study of racism?
o What are their foci/concerns? Define each.
• What do Braddock et al. argue in “How many bad apples?”
o How does their argument relate to the module’s lecture? What approach(es) to the study of racism
does their argument reflect?
Paragraph 2: Sociology of Social Networks (see Writing Assignment #10)
• According to the module’s lecture, what is a “social network”?
o What are the component parts of a social network?
• According to the module’s lecture, how/why do social networks matter?
o What are the three functions of social networks?
• What does McCabe argue in “Friends with Academic Benefits”?
o How does her argument relate to the module’s lecture? What network functions does her
argument reflect?
Paragraph 3: Sociology of Immigration (see Writing Assignment #11)
• According to the module’s lecture, how do sociologists study immigration?
o Define the work of Park, Portes, Glick Schiller, and Massey. What does each reveal about the
immigration interests of sociologists, more generally?
• What does Telles argue in “Mexican Americans and Immigrant Incorporation”?
o How does his argument relate to the module’s lecture? Whose work (Park, Portes, Glick Schiller,
or Massey) does his argument reflect?
Paragraph 4: Sociology of Gender (see Writing Assignment #12)
• According to the module’s lecture, what is “gender”? What is “sex”?
• According to the module’s lecture, what are the 3 sociological theories for the gender divide/binary in the
United States?
o What are their foci/concerns? Define each.
• What do Yavorsky et al. argue in “Gender in the One Percent”?
o How does their argument relate to the module’s lecture? Which theory(ies) does their argument

Covid-19 has resulted in increased incidents of mistreatment against Asian-Americans that had a
detrimental effect on American livelihood and people of color. The use and definition of the term race have
varied over time. Its current definition refers to people treated and tagged as similar because of similar
biological traits, including hair texture, eye shape, and hair color (Amy Traver, 2021). Initially, the term race
was used to refer to nationality and ethnic heritage, but as individuals evolved, they started to describe race
from a biological angle stating that race is a natural system of categorizing human beings (Amy Traver, 2021).
Today, scientists have acknowledged that race is not a biological aspect; rather a social construction that
creates artificial distinctions.
Racial formation is a social process that unfolds by recognizing physical differences between and
amongst people, grouping them, giving meaning to the groups, and arranging them hierarchically. From a
micro-level or personal racism perspective, racism is the explicit personal level prejudicial attitudes and
beliefs that influence two or more people (Amy Traver, 2021). From the macro-level or structural perspective,
racism is not based on individual attitudes or beliefs but on institutions and social processes that structure an
individual’s life. In the line of “New” Racisms, most white Americans support racial equality in principle;
they resist implementing policies that will ensure racial equality (Amy Traver, 2021). Language is the
foundation of culture and the filter of every individual’s lived experience.
What I Knew About the Module’s Lecture Topic Before I Began the Module
Before I began the module, I knew that racism only involves color and often occurs between white
Americans and African Americans. I knew that racism entails one group demeaning the other.

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What I Learned About the Module’s Lecture Topic by Completing the Module
I learned that in the current world, race affects how individuals treat each other in society. For
example, in America, Hispanic and black American families have the highest percentage of food insecurities
than any other group in the country (Amy Traver, 2021). I also learned that in America, people of color are
often concentrated in low-paying jobs and do not have equal opportunities to acquire high-paying jobs like
Law, Engineering, and Medicine. I learned that personal or micro-level racism was the first area in the study
of racism. Again, I learned that when children discover that their race is associated with little intelligence in
school, it directly affects their performance at school (Amy Traver, 2021). The knowledge a child has on the
perception of their race affects the child’s mental capabilities.
If a student performed at a certain level in school, their performance will fall under their previous
performance after learning of their stereotype. I learned that government policies and practices are the
fundamental aspects of the structural sociological analysis of racism (Amy Traver, 2021). I learned that racebased implicit biases might have a significant effect on individuals’ actions and expectations. From the topic
of the module on racism, I learned that movies play a major role in influencing the racial perceptions of
various individuals; for example, movies represent people of color as wild and dangerous, shifting the focus
of white Americans from hate to fear.
What I Still Don’t Understand About the Module’s Lecture Topic Despite Completing the Module and
the Questions that Remain for Me
I still don’t understand why white Americans would, in principle, claim to support racial equality and,
at the same time, refute policies in place that steer racial equality. The question that remains for me is; why do
white Americans claim to support racial equality but deny efforts on policies supporting racial equality?

A Summary of the Module’s Research Article
People of color are not often get treated the same as whites. Research has shown that Blacks and
Latinos are more vulnerable to police brutality than whites. Scholars, activists, politicians, and public
members have stated that the force that white officers use against minority groups is either a result of implicit
or explicit bias (Braddock, Lautenschlager, Piquero, & Piquero, 2020). There is a higher implicit bias among
Whites than Latinx, Asian, and other race groups. Again, Whites show more explicit bias than any other
group. As much as Blacks show lower levels of explicit bias than other racial groups, Black officers exhibit
more significant explicit bias than other groups (Braddock et al., 2020). Intense racial discrimination among
police may lead to unnecessary traffic stops and decisions to offer help.
How The Module’s Lecture Topic Connects To The Research Article
The Modules lecture connects to the article by showing how implicit bias among Whites affects the
well-being of minority groups in America. The point in the module lecture that talks about micro-level bias
are seen in how white American police handle Asians, Latinx, and Blacks.
Amy Traver. (2021, August 6). Lecture 9 [Video]. Retrieved November 16, 2021, from
Braddock, J. H., Lautenschlager, R. E., Piquero, A. R., & Piquero, N. L. (2020, October 27). Sociology for the
public. How many bad apples? Investigating implicit and explicit bias among police officers and the
general public [PDF document].

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