S. Pyogenes causing strep throat and S. Pyogenes causing scarlet fever comparison assignment

March 6, 2022

S. Pyogenes causing strep throat and S. Pyogenes causing scarlet fever comparison assignment

S. Pyogenes causing strep throat and S. Pyogenes causing scarlet fever comparison assignment

S. Pyogenes causing strep throat and S. Pyogenes causing scarlet fever comparison assignment

Answer Critical Thinking 1-3 for Chapter 24 on page 710. Answers should be submitted in a word document with any associated references used

1) Differentiate S. Pyogenes causing strep throat from S. Pyogenes causing scarlet fever

2) Why might the influenza vaccine be less effective than other vaccines?

3) Explain why it wound be impractical to include cold and influenza vaccinations in the required childhood vaccinations

Pharyngitis, or sore throat, is the most common manifestation of infection with Streptococcus pyogenes. Sore throat is a frequently presenting complaint for outpatient medical visits; as a result, infection with S. pyogenes is diagnosed in 20 to 40% of pharyngitis cases in children, and in 5 to 15% in adults. Scarlet fever denotes a clinical syndrome that is characterized by the presence of a rash along with an S. pyogenes infection, usually pharyngitis. In this chapter, the topics covered include pathogenesis of pharyngitis, animal models of S. pyogenes pharyngitis, adherence of S. pyogenes to epithelial cells, intracellular survival and persistence in the pharynx, regulation of capsule production, S. pyogenes survival in the pharynx, and immunity to pharyngitis. Finally, there is an overview and discussion of clinical features, complications, diagnosis, and treatment of these diseases.

Pharyngitis, or sore throat, is the most common manifestation of infection with Streptococcus pyogenes. Sore throat is a frequent presenting complaint for outpatient medical visits, and infection with S. pyogenes is diagnosed in 20 to 40% of pharyngitis cases in

S. Pyogenes causing strep throat and S. Pyogenes causing scarlet fever comparison assignment

S. Pyogenes causing strep throat and S. Pyogenes causing scarlet fever comparison assignment

children and in 5 to 15% in adults (Ebell, Smith, Barry, Ives, & Carey, 2000; Shaikh, Leonard, & Martin, 2010). The peak incidence of S. pyogenes pharyngitis occurs in children 5 to 15 years of age (Danchin, et al., 2007). Infection is more common during winter and spring in temperate climates. Outbreaks may occur in households, schools, military facilities, and other settings in which there is close human-to-human contact. There is no known environmental reservoir or natural animal host of S. pyogenes, apart from human beings; and as a result, direct or indirect contact with an infected person is the source of human infection. Transmission is thought to occur primarily by large droplets from respiratory secretions, although spread through contaminated objects and food are well-described alternate routes of transmission. Unpasteurized milk and contaminated food have also been sources of several well-documented S. pyogenes outbreaks (Dublin, Rogers, Perkins, & Graves, 1943; Kemble, et al., 2013).

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Scarlet fever, or streptococcal pharyngitis associated with a characteristic rash, has been recognized for centuries. “Scarlatina” was clearly distinguished from other febrile rash illnesses (such as measles, in particular) by Sydenham in the 17th century. Epidemics of scarlet fever with high mortality occurred in cities in Europe and North America as late as the latter part of the 19th century (Rolleston, 1928). The historical aspects of scarlet fever are described in detail in Chapter 1. Since the advent of penicillin treatment, scarlet fever has become less common and fatal cases are extremely rare. However, some large outbreaks have been reported in the 21st century, most notably in China and Hong Kong

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