REVIEW THE DIFFERENT MODELS AND FRAMEWORKS THAT CAN BE USED TO FACILITATE CHANGE NUR 590
Review the different models and frameworks that can be used to facilitate change. Compare two and explain which is best for your evidence-based practice proposal and why. Provide rationale.
The Star Model explains how specific forms of knowledge, such as the systematic review and the clinical practice guideline, are solutions for moving research into practice. It is a model for understanding the cycles, nature, and characteristics of knowledge that are utilized in various phases of EBP in moving evidence into clinical decision making. The clinical scholar model was developed and implemented to promote the spirit of inquiry, educate direct care providers, and guide a mentorship program for EBP and the conduct of research at the point of care. It began as an interactive, outcomes-oriented educational program for nurses but has evolved into an interdisciplinary educational program for direct care providers (Melnyk, 2019). In my evidence-based practice proposal, the Star Model would be most beneficial. This model reviews current practice and applies knowledge for change. For my proposal, there is a lot of research on both patient and nurse dissatisfaction with the current bereavement process when a patient experiences a miscarriage in the ED. There is not a lot of research on implementation of better practice and protocols. Therefore, the Star Model will allow for me to take the knowledge of the subject and develop a change.
Melnyk, B. M., & Fineout-Overholt, E. (2019). Evidence-based practice in nursing & healthcare: A guide to best practice (4th ed.). Wolters Kluwer Health.
Change facilitation requires forethought and intentional planning and execution if a well-supported, sustainable change is going to be made on a larger scale – especially in healthcare. Evidence-base practice models may include theoretical models grouped into evidence-based practice/research utilization and knowledge transformation processes, strategic organizational change theory or knowledge exchange and synthesis for application and inquiry (Melnyk & Fineout-Overholt, 2019). However, it is becoming more widely acknowledged that a formalized approach must be considered to successfully implement these evidence-based models.
Eight different models have been identified as key drivers for evidence-based integration and change management. These include: 1. The Stetler Model of Evidence-Based Practice, 2. The Iowa Model of Evidence-Based Practice, 3. The Model for Evidence-Based Practice Change, 4. The Advancing Research and Clinical practice through close Collaboration (ARCC) model for implementation and sustainability of EBP, 6. The Clinical Scholar Model, 7. The Johns Hopkins Nursing Evidence-Based Practice Model, and 8. The Stevens Star Model of Knowledge Transformation (Melnyk & Fineout-Overholt, 2019).
Upon comparing the Stetler Model and Johns Hopkins Model, the Stetler Model has been regularly revised, and involves integrating evidence-base practice information into practical, sustainable day to day standards for patient care. With critical thinking and utilization of both internal and external evidence to support practice change, the Stetler Model hinges on five phases, and multiple steps to identify and support use of evidence, determined by critical thinking (Melnyk & Fineout-Overholt, 2019). A “toolkit” of sorts has been developed to implement consensus guidelines and evidence-base practice change. Upon comparison, the Johns Hopkins Model supports its use by bedside registered nurses with aim to implement research results in an evidence-based practice format. The key objective is to make it easy for direct caregivers to make change at a grass-roots level, while positively impacting patient outcomes in a meaningful way. A problem-solving approach to address clinical questions, the 18-step process allows for non-randomized control trial designed evaluations and quality improvement initiatives to take place(Melnyk & Fineout-Overholt, 2019).. With mindfulness that registered nurses encounter challenges that require a fix “tomorrow”, with potential use of nonresearch evidence by use of four pathways.
For my PICOT with aim to reduce occurrence of CLABSIs in patients with a central line, I believe either model could be used to implement meaningful change. However, the Stetler model is better suited for a randomized control trial approach, which is the method I believe to be best suited to gain the most sound, valid and reliable results. By way of using critical thinking and various types of evidence (internal AND external), the Stetler model allows for easy implementation of evidence gathered by way of a toolkit and use of consensus guidelines and policy change.
Melnyk, B.M., & Fineout-Overholt, E. (2019). Evidence-based practice in nursing and healthcare: A guide to best practice (4th ed.). Wolters Kluwer. ISBN-13:9781496384539
The Iowa Model for Evidence-based practice (IMEBP) implementation has been used effectively to implement hundreds of evidence-based research projects as it provides direction through decision points for priority, resources, amount of supporting evidence, research designing, piloting then integration and sustaining (Buckwater, Cullen, Hanrahan, Kleiber, McCarthy, Rakel, Steelman, Tripp & Tycker, 2017). This model thoroughly considers the creation and lifespan of implementation of EBP which is why it can commonly be seen and used in a research setting (Buckwater et al., 2017). Compared to the Johns Hopkins Nursing Evidence-Based Practice Model (JHNEBPM), there is similarity in the process of implementing and evaluating EBP research. The JHNEBPM however is more specific in applying to the nursing perspective as well as increasing the understanding that an initial exploratory inquiry is a separate step from the PET (practice question, evidence, translation) process (Melnyk & Fineout-Overholt, 2018). This model appears more organized for clinical decision making for EBP in nursing as it can be similar to the nursing process in both clinical and research settings.
It is more appropriate to use the JHNEBPM as a framework to my EBP research project as the goal is to provide change in education from nursing to a population. Since the model provides more considerations for critical thinking, more health outcomes or more types of education can be produced to achieve research goals (Melnyk & Fineout-Overholt, 2018).
Buckwalter, K. C., Cullen, L., Hanrahan, K., Kleiber, C., McCarthy, A. M., Rakel, B., Steelman, V., Tripp, R. T., & Tucker, S. (2017). Iowa Model of Evidence-Based Practice: Revisions and Validation. Worldviews on Evidence-Based Nursing, 14(3), 175–182. https://doi-org.lopes.idm.oclc.org/10.1111/wvn.12223
Melnyk, B. M., & Fineout-Overholt, E. (2018). Evidence-Based practice in nursing and healthcare (4th ed.). p. 434-437. Wolters Kluwer Health.