PHI 413 Worldview Analysis And Personal Inventory Assignment

March 6, 2022

PHI 413 Worldview Analysis And Personal Inventory Assignment

PHI 413 Worldview Analysis And Personal Inventory Assignment

PHI 413 Worldview Analysis And Personal Inventory Assignment

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Worldview Analysis and Personal Inventory

Worldviews have a significant influence on the practice of nursing. It influences the decisions that nurses make when providing care to those in need. Often, factors such as environmental exposures and religion shape our worldviews. It also influences the manner in which we respond to situations in our environments. Therefore, this essay examines various aspects of worldview that informs my practice.

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Christian Perspective of the Nature of Spirituality and Ethics in Contrast to the Perspective of Postmodern Relativism within Health Care

Christianity entails the belief in the existence of God. According to Christians, God is considered the father of all, the son, as well as the Holy Spirit. God is also a supernatural being that has control over all the things that happen on earth. They also believe that God exists in different forms. He is described using terms such as being omnipresent, omnipotent, and transcendent. These descriptions imply that the existence of God is beyond the understanding of the human beings. Christians also believe that God created human beings. Despite this belief, Christians also hold to the fact that science is important for the health and wellbeing of human beings (Choi, 2016). They consider science to be important in assisting people understand reality. They also consider it a source of knowledge that can be used to understand better the creations of God. In relation to health, Christians believe that God heals people from their health problems. However, this is made possible with the use of faith as well as science (Kyle, 2015). Therefore, health and religion are inseparable.

Post-modern relativism questions the existence of reality. According to it, human beings exist in environments where there is no certainty. In this respect, everything that happens in the universe is in a continuous state of flux. Therefore, the values, beliefs, practices, and traditions that human beings hold to be determinants of their wellbeing change over time. The assumptions guiding post-modern relatives imply that the truth in something lies on one’s subjective or objective assessment of the circumstances surrounding it. As a result, something that appears to be morally and ethically right for one person might not be the same for the other (Kyle, 2015). Consequently, the practice of nursing should focus on ensuring that individual’s or patient’s worldview is incorporated into the plan of care.

Scientism and Arguments against it

Scientism entails a belief or philosophical holding that everything that occurs in nature can be explained by science.     According to people holding this belief, the occurrence of events is not due to chance but rationale. Often, things happen due to exposure to circumstances that change the manner in which events traditionally occur. Scientism also holds that science is the only source of knowledge. In this case, knowledge is developed through observable events that are influenced by specific or generalized variables (Clarke, 2016). Therefore, rather than relying on assumptions and beliefs, scientism advocates the utilization of knowledge in science through experimentation. Further, scientism asserts that human beings can only be understood through observing their beliefs and behavior. An example of scientism belief is the lack of life after death. According to it, death is an occurrence due to loss of physiological functioning. Since the focus is on observable things and variables, there is no afterlife following death. Consequently, the focus of scientism on facts often contradicts those held by religions such as Christianity.

One of the arguments against scientism is that there is life after death. According to Christianity, a supernatural being will resurrect people from death. This belief has been transferred over generations through the biblical teachings. As a result, science should try to incorporate the religious underpinnings into their worldview to understand human existence in the universe. The other argument against science is that it is emotive rather than being conceptual (Puca, 2018). In this case, science holds factual knowledge to be absolute truth in our lives. By doing this, it underscores the role of philosophy, religion, and or literature in shaping our understanding and experiences. Therefore, scientism in itself does not account for the influences of these aspects on human behaviors in their environments.

Ultimate Reality

According to my understanding, ultimate reality is something that is final, supreme and powerful in determining our reality. My ultimate reality is that God has control over the things that happen in our lives. I believe that while science is important, God is supreme since he guides the scientists in their innovations. I believe that God is the creator as well as the determinant of when our lives end. Therefore, we should always strive towards ensuring that we live in ways that align with his teachings in the Holy Bible (Wildman, 2017). I also believe that the provision of nursing care should take into consideration the different philosophical beliefs of the patients. Consequently, holism in care is only achieved when care that addresses the spiritual, physical, and psychological needs of the patients is provided.

Nature of the Universe

I believe that God determines the things that happen in the universe. According to God’s teaching, human beings should protect their universe. The relationship between human beings and their universe is symbiotic in nature. Human beings should also utilize the resources in their environments to promote social good. I also believe that God has control over the contents of the universe. This includes control over the things that happen in the day and night. According to my philosophical view, God made most of the resources scarce for human beings (Johnson, 2018). Therefore, they should strive towards ensuring that they are protected to meet the needs of the future generations. This implies that while the universe provides resources, human beings must strive towards protecting them, hence, the symbiotic relationship between them.

PHI 413 Worldview Analysis And Personal Inventory Assignment Details:

Based on the required topic study materials, write a reflection about worldview and respond to following:

  • In 250-300 words, explain the Christian perspective of the nature of spirituality and ethics in contrast to the perspective of postmodern relativism within health care.

Worldview Analysis and Personal Inventory

Christians believe in the saving power of God through the Son, Jesus Christ. According to Christianity, God exists in three forms, God the Father, the Son, and the Holy Spirit. God can do different tasks in human life through various forms. God created all beings and placed them on earth. He later gave human beings the power to rule and dominate the world. Therefore, there is no doubt that God can sustain what he created. The Christians believe in the spiritual source of help whenever confronted with an issue.

Similarly, the ethical perspective of an act would be judged based on the will of God. Furthermore, Christians believe that God is the giver of all things, including wisdom. As a result, patients should be handled as living objects and treated with dignity since they are part of God’s creation (McGhee, 2019).

However, the postmodern relativism perspective is grounded on the scientific inquiry on the issues and challenges people face (Cabrero, 2018). The scientific approach dwells so much on research and evidence-based solutions. Post-modern relativism does not hold on any definite truth, and this means that they believe in the invention rather than discovery. Therefore, the perspective would also have different regard to ethics. For example, there are no guideline standards to judge murder as either morally upright or wrong based on the post-modern relativism. Besides, the approach does not give much credit to human life as compared to the lives of other creatures, as evident in the Christian worldview (Orr, 2015). Therefore, it becomes difficult to work in an environment with limited truth and a lack of definite ethical guidelines as a nurse. For a Christian, euthanasia is considered ethically wrong; however, the act may not be morally wrong for the postmodern relativists.

  • In 250-300 words, explain what scientism is and describe two of the main arguments against it.
  • In 750-1,000 words, answer each of the worldview questions according to your own personal perspective and worldview: (a) What is ultimate reality? (b) What is the nature of the universe? (c) What is a human being? (d) What is knowledge? (e) What is your basis of ethics? (f) What is the purpose of your existence?

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Remember to support your reflection with the topic study materials.

While APA style is not required for the body of this assignment, solid academic writing is expected, and documentation of sources should be presented using APA formatting guidelines, which can be found in the APA Style Guide, located in the Student Success Center.

This assignment uses a rubric. Please review the rubric prior to beginning the assignment to become familiar with the expectations for successful completion.

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PHI-413V Topic 1 Overview

Foundational Issues in Christian Spirituality and Ethics
Introduction
Welcome to Grand Canyon University’s course on Ethical and Spiritual Decision-Making in health care. Some students may be apprehensive and object to taking this course because they feel such a course is not necessary for their major. Yet Grand Canyon University has a long-standing Christian heritage, meaning that our Christian faith is fundamental to all that we do. We want all students to feel welcome here, regardless of their religion or beliefs, but we also want all students to at least understand the Christian worldview and be challenged to think carefully about the deeper questions of life. PHI 413 Worldview Analysis And Personal Inventory Assignment

In addition, this course serves several key purposes for training in health care. First, it is important to understand that many of the foundational beliefs that the fields of medicine and health care take for granted (such as the intrinsic dignity and value of all human beings, regardless of race, gender, religion, socioeconomic status, etc.) are deeply held Christian values that come from the Christian worldview and have shaped the practice of medicine for almost 2,000 years. Second, all human beings hold beliefs, live, and act in the context of their worldview. All decisions, including health care decisions, that human beings make are informed by their most deeply held values and beliefs which comprise a person’s worldview. Thus, it is important to understand how a patient’s worldview will shape their decision-making and values in health care. Worldview Analysis And Personal Inventory assignment

Third, decision-making in health care often times involves ethical decisions about right or wrong, and it is crucial for health care practitioners to have an understanding of the nature of ethical decision-making, as well as some practical training. Fundamentally, this course is about how the Christian worldview approaches various issues and questions in health care. In understanding the Christian worldview, one will also come to learn how different worldviews might approach the same questions.

Some students may be unsure what their worldview is or have a worldview that is very different from Christianity and wonder how they will fit into such a class. Everyone has a mixture of beliefs that make him or her unique. Please be assured that the goal is to help each student feel comfortable interacting with other students and to have a positive experience. The College of Theology and instructors hope to encourage critical thinking about one’s worldview and purpose in life. This is an opportunity to think about what you believe, challenge your assumptions, learn from others, and move forward on your unique life journey.

Throughout this course, you will be seeking wisdom. And from the Christian worldview, all wisdom comes from God. This is why James, the brother of Jesus, wrote in his letter, “If any of you lacks wisdom, let him ask God, who gives generously to all without reproach, and it will be given him” (James 1:5 NIV). Understanding what a worldview is,

and in particular the elements of Christian worldview, will help one understand the foundations of Christian spirituality and ethics.

What Is a Worldview?
The following definitions are helpful:

·         “A set of assumptions or beliefs about reality that affect how we think and how we live” (Cosgrove, 2006, p. 19).

·         “The comprehensive perspective from which we interpret all of reality” (Keller, 2012, p. 157).

Worldview is often described as a set of lenses through which we view the world. As a descriptive lens, our worldview influences our perception of the world. What is true? What is reality? As a prescriptive lens, our worldview influences our evaluation of what is true. What does it mean? How should we live? Worldview Analysis And Personal Inventory assignment PHI 413 Worldview Analysis And Personal Inventory Assignment

One may readily see that if one views the nature of the universe as consisting of only physical matter and energy, then that person’s understanding of the meaning of life and how we should live will likely be far different from one whose perception of the universe includes a spiritual realm where life continues after death and goodness is rewarded. PHI 413 Worldview Analysis And Personal Inventory Assignment

While it is true that all people have their own private worldviews with values and beliefs that have been shaped by culture, education, experiences, and relationships, it is also valuable to speak of shared worldviews, those foundational assumptions or beliefs that many people hold in common. For the sake of this course, the course content will be reduced from the many-shared worldviews to three basic worldview families.

What Are the Three Basic Worldview Families?
Though there are many different worldviews, for the purpose of this course they have been simplified into three basic worldview families. There are many variations within these families.

Atheism
Atheism is the worldview of those who believe only in what their senses can detect— only what may be analyzed and understood in a scientific laboratory. This view believes in no God or spiritual realm. The cosmos consists of only the natural or physical realm of matter and energy. Other names often associated with this worldview family are naturalism and secular humanism. Most whose worldview values and behavior are aligned with atheism prefer to be considered agnostics. These are uncertain of the existence of God, skeptical for the most part, yet open to the possibility. Worldview Analysis And Personal Inventory assignment

Pantheism
Pantheism is the worldview of spiritualism, the belief that “all is God” as the word implies. Pantheists believe in a spiritual realm, but no relational God who has revealed

himself to humanity and is actively involved in the lives of those who believe in him. This worldview family consists of the Eastern religions of Hinduism and Buddhism, as well as the more eclectic Western belief known as New Age. Pantheists typically embrace an impersonal oneness of which all humans may become a part, becoming godlike themselves as they reach higher levels of spirituality.

Theism
Theism, or monotheism, is the worldview of the three major religions, Judaism, Christianity, and Islam. Though these three have huge differences rendering them incompatible with each other, they do nonetheless have some similarities. Theists all believe in a single, personal, and relational God who is the creator and sustainer of all that exists. They all likewise believe in absolute truth and morality, and an afterlife. The focus of this course is Christianity, so the course will be comparing these three worldviews: atheism, pantheism, and Christianity.

Another common worldview name, deism, is somewhat of an enigma—having a basic belief in God, but a God who is not relational or involved in human life. So although falling under the broad category of theism, deists may effectively live as atheists. Many people have complex worldviews that are a mix of various beliefs from the major worldview families.

How Do We Determine Our Worldview?
There are six components that help to determine worldview. The following questions correspond to each component. Answering each of the following questions for yourself will help you begin thinking about your own worldview:

1.  What Is Ultimate Reality?
Does reality consist basically of physical matter and energy, as the atheists believe? Is reality an impersonal spiritual entity that dominates the universe and to which all humans must endeavor to attain unity with, as the pantheists assert, or is there a personal and relational, all-powerful, and sovereign God who exists everywhere, but is separate from the physical world he created, as believed by Christians and other theists?

2.  What Is the Nature of the Universe?
This is similar to the question above but focuses strictly on what one believes about the natural world. Is the universe strictly physical and yet eternal in one form or another? Is it merely an illusion intended as a battleground for us to work toward enlightenment, or was the universe created by God and far more complex than can be detected by scientists, consisting of both a physical and a spiritual realm?

3.  What Is a Human Being?
Is a human basically a biological machine, just a higher level of animal? Is a human a type of god with powers to reach perfection, or is a human an off-the-charts creature

designed in the image of God with an eternal spirit like his and similar abilities to reason, seek moral purity, communicate on a high level, create for beauty, and love even those who cannot love in return? Is death the end of existence, or is there a soul that lives on? Does that soul return in another life, or does it return to God and await judgment?

4.  What Is Knowledge?
Is there such a thing as absolute truth, or is truth relative? Is true knowledge only that which may be acquired and understood through scientific means, or is there also knowledge that only may be acquired by revelation from God? Should you only trust your senses, or should you explore the spiritual realm and seek knowledge from God?

5.  What Is Your Basis of Ethics?
How do you know right from wrong? Is morality learned, or is it designed into our conscience? Is there a set of absolute moral standards given by God, or is morality relative, a matter of culture, and what is acceptable to a society?

6.  What the Purpose of Your Existence?
Is human life as you know it merely the result of some amazing cosmic accident, or is there an underlying meaning to history, a purpose toward which time will culminate? Does life have meaning and purpose for individuals, or is it simply whatever one makes it? Did the Creator design his children with a purpose? If so, what might that be?

How Do We Test Our Worldview?
Everyone (not only religious people) forms his or her worldview on the basis of faith (assumptions and presuppositions) and reason. So we must ask ourselves “how reasonable or consistent is our worldview?” Are there any contradictions that are apparent? Testing a worldview is critical because at the end of the day, most people want to make sure that they have true beliefs about the world. The following tests are just some ways of determining whether or not a particular worldview is true. Consider only three basic tests summarized here: PHI 413 Worldview Analysis And Personal Inventory Assignment

1.      The Coherence Test checks the internal consistency of a worldview to see if one’s specific values and beliefs contradict any other beliefs within the worldview.

2.      The Correspondence Test examines how well a worldview corresponds to reality. It evaluates evidences and experiences to see if the worldview matches with what one perceives in the real world.

3.      The Practical Test evaluates a worldview’s livability. Does the worldview bring satisfaction as one faces life’s challenges, or is it found to be lacking?

Foundations of Christian Spirituality and Ethics
The foundational beliefs of Christianity inform the Christian understanding of the nature of spirituality and the nature of ethics. Thus, the way in which the Christian worldview

answers the six questions above shapes a distinctly Christian spirituality and Christian ethic. The term spirituality has many different definitions in popular culture and in different contexts. One influential definition claims, “spirituality is an aspect of humanity that refers to the way individuals seek and express meaning and purpose, and the way they experience their connectedness to the moment, to self, to others, to nature, and to the significant or sacred” (Puchalski et al., 2009). This definition is broad enough to give a general idea of what spirituality involves, but it does not give a full picture of a person’s spiritual life or spiritual needs. Those details will be filled in by examining a persons specific worldview. Worldview Analysis And Personal Inventory assignment

Spirituality in the Christian worldview has its foundations in the reality of a triune God who eternally exists as Father, Son, and Holy Spirit. God is one being in three persons and is the creator and sustainer of all that exists. He is all-knowing, all-powerful, and loving to his core, “And so we know and rely on the love God has for us. God is love.

Whoever lives in love lives in God, and God in them” (1 John 4:16). This God has revealed himself in different ways to human beings, including through the natural world. However, he has revealed himself and his will for human beings most authoritatively through the Bible and in the person of Jesus Christ. In this view, whatever it means to be spiritual will in some sense be related directly or indirectly to God, and will come to be known primarily through the teachings of the Bible.

Furthermore, Christian spirituality will refer to the beliefs and practices that are meant to reflect the proper functioning of God’s creation, and which promote right relationship to God and deeper knowledge of him. Many times spirituality is taken to be synonymous with the feeling of deep emotion or of oneness with a transcendent reality, but Christian spirituality is not limited to the experience of mere emotions or feelings.

Feelings and emotions are an important part of being human, and they are even an important part of one’s relationship to God. Yet, spirituality in the Christian worldview is not dictated by the feelings or emotions one might be experiencing in the moment, but by trust in the goodness of God and obedience to him.

In the same way that Christian spirituality finds its foundations in the reality of the triune God of the Bible, ethics also has its foundations in God. Ethics, broadly speaking, is the study of good and bad, right and wrong. Every worldview has to explain the foundations of ethics (in line with worldview question #5 above) such that it explains the basis of what counts as good and bad, right or wrong. In the Christian worldview, there is a God who exists and has created the world with a moral structure and purpose such that what is truly right and good is a reflection of God’s character. God’s own holy, loving and perfect character is the standard of right and wrong. Badness or what is wrong is then defined as anything that is contrary to God’s character, his will, or to his design and purpose for his creation.

The Bible reveals what God’s character is like. Exodus 34:6-7 says,

The LORD, the LORD, the compassionate and gracious God, slow to anger and abounding in love and faithfulness, maintaining love to thousands, and forgiving wickedness, rebellion and sin. Yet he does not leave the guilty unpunished; he

punishes the children and their children for the sin of the parents to the third and fourth generation.

Similarly, 1 John 4:7-9 says,

Dear friends, let us love one another, for love comes from God. Everyone who loves has been born of God and knows God. Whoever does not love does not know God, because God is love. This is how God showed his love among us: He sent his one and only Son into the world that we might live through him.

Psalm 18:30 declares, “As for God, his way is perfect: The LORD’s word is flawless; he shields all who take refuge in him.” Many more verses could be surveyed, but the Bible makes clear that God is perfectly good and holy. Knowing right and wrong then will mean knowing that which accords to God’s character.

Right or wrong can be discovered in multiple ways. It can be discovered in God’s creation by examining the natural world or by the use of human reason. In this way, one discovers God’s design for the way things are supposed to be by examining what is built into creation; this is often referred to as “natural law.” For example, one can know by means of reason and observation that murder is wrong or that a broken bone is bad and not the way it is supposed to be. Conversely, one might come to know that feeding the homeless is good, and loving one’s spouse is right. One does not need to be religious or even believe in God to be able to know propositions of “natural law.” Nevertheless, the Christian worldview holds that these truths are built into the world by God. Second, right or wrong can be discovered by reading the Bible or looking at the example of Jesus Christ. The Bible reveals God’s commands and principles such as the Ten Commandments or the teachings of Jesus on the sermon on the mount. In addition, the Bible provides us with examples of virtuous people. The perfect man and moral exemplar (though much more than only a man and an exemplar) in the Christian tradition is Jesus Christ himself. The Christian is to not only obey God’s commands, but to be transformed into the kind of person that reflects the character of God. Jesus Christ is the perfect representation of such a life; Christians, thus, ought to embody the virtues and character of Jesus himself. The attaining of these virtues will not only be a matter of intellectual knowledge of right and wrong, but an active surrender and transformation by means of God’s own Holy Spirit. The wisdom to navigate all the complexities of ethical decision-making will be a consequence of a person’s character and the active guidance of the Holy Spirit. Worldview Analysis And Personal Inventory assignment

Knowledge of God, Knowledge of Ethics
A key component of the foundations of Christian spirituality and ethics as described above is the view that people can have genuine knowledge of God and knowledge of right and wrong. A few observations about the word knowledge need to be considered. First, by knowledge we mean the opposite of mere opinion. Knowledge is more than just an educated guess; it is being in touch with the real world as it really is. Thus, knowledge in this sense is not merely subjective, but is rather an objective description of reality. For

example, the proposition “the earth is round” is an objectively true description of reality, even if some people happen to subjectively deny that the earth is round. Subjective beliefs may be true or false. What would make subjective beliefs true would be if they matched the real objective world. Fundamentally, knowledge is the possession and awareness of truth.

There are two philosophies, however, that stand in contrast to the Christian belief that one can have knowledge of God and knowledge of right and wrong, namely scientism and postmodernism. These two philosophies are very influential in today’s society, although they are not compatible with the Christian worldview. It is important to understand these philosophies because not only are they not compatible with the Christian worldview, they arguably have negative effects on the practice of medicine and health care.

Scientism
Although the term scientism has the word science in it, it is crucial to recognize that (1) scientism is not the same thing as (2) science. In the Christian worldview, science is a great and good thing. In fact, the Christian worldview has always encouraged careful investigation of the natural world. In the Christian worldview, medical technology is considered a good gift from God insofar as God has created the kind of world that has a structure that can be discovered and manipulated to bring about the good of human beings (Rae & Cox, 1999). Scientism, however, is not compatible with the Christian worldview. Scientism is the belief that the best or only way to have any knowledge of reality is by means of the sciences (Moreland & Craig, 2003, pp. 346-350). In other words, if something is not known scientifically then it is not known at all, and the only way to hold true beliefs about anything is to know them scientifically. PHI 413 Worldview Analysis And Personal Inventory Assignment

That may sound reasonable and even commonsense, but there are two problems with scientism: (1) scientism is a self-refut

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