NURS 6051 Discussion Alterations in Cellular Processes

March 6, 2022

NURS 6051 Discussion Alterations in Cellular Processes

NURS 6051 Discussion Alterations in Cellular Processes

NURS 6051 Discussion Alterations in Cellular Processes

https://www.allnursingessays.com/nurs-6051-discussion-alterations-in-cellular-processes/

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Hello Colleagues,

The boy in the scenario was being treated with amoxicillin due to his positive rapid strep test and symptoms.  Common symptoms include fever, red swollen tonsils, purulent tonsils, pain when swallowing, petechiae, odynophagia, and swollen lymph nodes (CDC, 2021). His local symptoms of inflammation involve vascular changes and leakage into the tissues (McNance & Huether, 2019). The redness and swelling are due to increased blood flow to the area from vasodilation. Capillaries dilate and allow white blood cells to leak into the infected area. His pain is from the increased pressure on the tissues from the accumulation of fluids in the area. The purulent exudate is the end result of phagocytizing cells dying in the area and being eliminated through epithelial tissue in the throat. These cells have already reached maturity and cannot replicate anymore.  They are also sensitive to the acidic environment of the body, so they die after performing their immunological duties (McCance & Huether, 2019). The lymphatic system is the reason for the anterior and posterior cervical adenopathy. Lymphatic channels transport body fluids from the infection site to nodules. These nodules are swollen due to fluid shifts. The nodes act as a processing center introducing the invaders to B-cells, T-cells, and macrophages that reside in the nodes (NCBI, 2021). The immune system analyses the invaders and is able to fine tune its response.

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The physiologic response to the amoxicillin was a type 1 hypersensitivity response. Cells in the body saw amoxicillin as a threat and started an inflammatory immune response. It all begins with mast cells. Mast cells line skin, blood vessels, and lung tissue. They can be activated by injury, chemicals, adaptive immune responses, or recognizing molecular patterns of viruses and bacteria (McCance & Huether, 2019). Immunoglobulin E (IgE), a chemical floating in blood plasm, binds to mast cells causing the release prostaglandins, interleukins, leukotrienes, and histamine through a process called degranulation. Mast cells also release chemicals that attract neutrophils and eosinophils to sites of injury where they phagocytose foreign invaders to the body. Histamine is the most important chemical in this reaction. When it binds to the H1 receptor it causes hives, vasodilation, bronchoconstriction, hypotension, and increased mucous production. This allows phagocytes such as neutrophils, eosinophils, and dendritic cells to enter the injured area. Red blood cells (RBCs), other body fluids, along with all white blood cells pass through causing edema to the affected areas. All of this extra fluid responding to the threat caused edema to his tongue, lips, airway and increased secretion of lung tissues. This is an urgent issue as it leads to airway compromise which is life threatening.

NURS 6051 Discussion Alterations in Cellular Processes

NURS 6051 Discussion Alterations in Cellular Processes

Strep throat is seen more in children than adults, especially ages five to 15 (CDC, 2018). Crowded areas such as schools and daycare centers increase risk of transmission (CDC, 2018). As of late, the quarantine has kept children at home so this could be slowing the spread. He is on the high end of the age for those children getting strep throat, but his social situation can also influence it.

Genetic factors play a role too. Approximately ten percent of all U.S. patients report having allergies to a penicillin class antibiotic in their past (CDC, n.d.). Parents can pass down allergies through genetics (NCBI, 2014). This is why it is a good idea to have children tested for allergies when they are younger. That way severe allergic reactions can be anticipated, and life-threatening situations can be avoided.

Thanks,

Centers for Disease Control (CDC). (n.d.) Is it really a penicillin allergy? https://www.cdc.gov/antibiotic-use/community/pdfs/penicillin-factsheet.pdf

Centers for Disease Control (CDC). (2021, January 12) Strep throat: all you need to know. https://www.cdc.gov/groupastrep/diseases-public/strep-throat.html

Centers for Disease Control (CDC). (2018, November) Group A streptococcal (gas) disease. https://www.cdc.gov/groupastrep/diseases-hcp/strep-throat.html

McCance, K., & Huethe, S. (2019) Pathophysiology the biologic basis for disease in adults and children (8thed.). St. Louis, MO: Elsevier

National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI). (2021). Adenopathy. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK513250/

National Center for Biotechnology. (2014) Genetics of allergic diseases. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4415518/

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Discussion: Alterations in Cellular Processes

Photo Credit: Getty Images

At its core, pathology is the study of disease. Diseases occur for many reasons. But some, such as cystic fibrosis and Parkinson’s Disease, occur because of alterations that prevent cells from functioning normally.

Understanding of signals and symptoms of alterations in cellular processes is a critical step in diagnosis and treatment of many diseases. For the Advanced Practice Registered Nurse (APRN), this understanding can also help educate patients and guide them through their treatment plans.

For this Discussion, you examine a case study and explain the disease that is suggested. You examine the symptoms reported and explain the cells that are involved and potential alterations and impacts.

To prepare:

  • By Day 1 of this week, you will be assigned to a specific scenario for this Discussion. Please see the “Course Announcements” section of the classroom for your assignment from your Instructor.

By Day 3 of Week 1

Post an explanation of the disease highlighted in the scenario you were provided. Include the following in your explanation:

  • The role genetics plays in the disease.
  • Why the patient is presenting with the specific symptoms described.
  • The physiologic response to the stimulus presented in the scenario and why you think this response occurred.
  • The cells that are involved in this process.
  • How another characteristic (e.g., gender, genetics) would change your response.

Discussion: Alteration in Cellular Processes

Initial Post

Malnutrition has been in existence for ages throughout the world but varies in different countries like the third world countries and the United States of America. Malnutrition is rampant in children, but there are higher cases found in the elderly in the United States (U.S.). Symptoms are not often noticed due to minor signs and inability to recognize the symptoms, which is most commonly attributed to aging (Alliance for Aging Research, 2016.).

This discussion will be based on a brief scenario of an 83-year-old who presented with generalized edema of extremities and abdomen. This patient has a history of malabsorption syndrome and difficulty eating due to a lack of dentures. The patient is diagnosed with Protein Malnutrition. Also, this disease will be examined thoroughly, followed by reviewing symptoms presented, the cells responsible for the illness, and the possible variation and effects of protein malnutrition.

Role Genetics Plays in the Disease

As deoxyribonucleic (DNA) is formed and reproduced inside the cell of the nucleus, protein forms in the cytoplasm have two phases known as transcription and translation with the intervention of ribonucleic acid (RNA) (McCance & Huether, 2019.). Transcription is formed from the synthesized RNA and acts as an RNA messenger. This occurs when RNA polymerase, an enzyme, bonds to a proponent area of the DNA, forming a gene (McCance & Huether, 2019.). Also, another protein named transcription factor binding sites originated from the DNA segment that regulates specific genes for transcription and in charge of the timing of transcription. Transcription can create or inhibit genes and is often improved by enhancers (McCance & Huether, 2019.). The RNA polymerase creates mRNA nucleotides by extracting a part of DNA strands from another DNA, thus guides the cycle of mRNA nucleotides. Transcriptions terminate once the DNA cycle called termination sequence is achieved.

Consequently, the RNA polymerase separates from the DNA, causing the transcribed mRNA to ravel out of the nucleus into the cytoplasm (McCance & Huether, 2019.). The second step is the translation which entails the migration from a gene to forming a protein in the cytoplasm. Translation communicates with transfer RNA (tRNA) for amino acids, as tRNA has space to accommodate amino acids (McCance & Huether, 2019.). Anticodon, a combination of three nucleotides, pairs the correct codon in the mRNA, and the mRNA defines the order of amino acids with the aid of tRNA. There is a communication process of amino acid translation as mRNA and tRNA interact with each other when a codon is formed with ribosomes’ help in the cytoplasm. A bond is created next to amino acids that produce polypeptide (McCance & Huether, 2019.). At the terminal stage, the ribosome notifies the mRNA sequence, translation, and polypeptide growth to quit. They all separate from each other, but the polypeptide is moved into the cytoplasm to perform its responsibility (McCance & Huether, 2019.).

Reasons for Patient’s Specific Symptoms

Protein deficiency leads to intestinal mucosal accumulation. Therefore, it reduces the rate of absorption and reduces its performance. Low levels of protein in the blood constitute protein malnutrition (McConnell, 2014.). Also, low albumin level leads to reduced intravascular osmotic pressure, leading to retention of fluid from the extravascular pressure, which brings about the patient’s symptoms of tissue edema and ascites (McConnell, 2014.).

The Physiologic Response to the Stimulus and Why the Response Occurred

A decreased plasma oncotic pressure is due to loss of albumin production. Fluid in the capillary escapes into the interstitial space and causes edema of the extremities. The combination of a decreased composite of plasma protein and reduced osmotic pressure leads to this patient’s diagnosis of protein malnutrition (McCance & Huether, 2019). Increased capillary permeability is another physiologic response in which an excessive amount of fluids leave the plasma for the interstitial space and cause swelling, as seen in the patient’s symptoms. This is a difficult situation due to protein loss from the vascular area, which causes decreased osmotic pressure and a fluid increase in the interstitial oncotic pressure, which simultaneously enables free fluids to go into the interstitial space (McCance & Huether, 2019. The patient’s physiologic response of localized edema of the abdomen, as there is an excess accumulation of fluid in the abdomen (McCance & Huether, 2019.

Cells Involved in this Process

Cells have their different specializations via differentiation or based on their maturity. Cells perform in diverse ways and are responsible for muscle movement, conductivity, mechanical absorption, secretion, excretion, respiration, reproduction, and communication (McCance & Huether, 2019.

In this scenario, cells that are involved in metabolic absorption will be the focus of this section. Cells perform well when the appropriate nutrients surround them, and cells in the intestine and kidney are responsible for absorption and re-absorption of fluids and synthesize protein. Majorly, cells from the intestinal epithelial carry out the best responsibility of reabsorbing fluids and protein enzymes (McCance & Huether, 2019. The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) synthesizes and moves protein and lipid constituents of cell organelles (McCance & Huether, 2019.

How Gender Changed My Response

There are some variations when it comes to differences in gender and race in protein levels. In this section, a comparison of c-reactiveprotein (CRP)

will be discussed. Based on research, blacks tend to have higher CRP levels while whites present with lower CRP levels. Also,women tend to have a

higher CRP level than men (Khera et al., 2005). This is interesting to know that protein malnutrition is more significantor more prominent in race and

gender. This may be considered essential to add as part of assessment tools for providers.

Read a selection of your colleagues’ responses.

By Day 6 of Week 1

Respond to at least two of your colleagues on 2 different days and respectfully agree or disagree with your colleague’s assessment and explain your reasoning. In your explanation, include why their explanations make physiological sense or why they do not

Note: For this Discussion, you are required to complete your initial post before you will be able to view and respond to your colleagues’ postings. Begin by clicking on the “Post to Discussion Question” link and then select “Create Thread” to complete your initial post. Remember, once you click on Submit, you cannot delete or edit your own posts, and you cannot post anonymously. Please check your post carefully before clicking on Submit!

Submission and Grading Information

Grading Criteria

To access your rubric:

Week 1 Discussion Rubric

 

Post by Day 3 of Week 1 and Respond by Day 6 of Week 1

To Participate in this Discussion:

Week 1 Discussion

 

Assignment

Practicum Manual Acknowledgment

The Practicum Manual describes the structure and timing of the classroom-based and practicum experiences and the policies students must follow to be successful in the nurse practitioner (NP) specialties.

Click here and follow the instructions to confirm you have downloaded and read the entire MSN Nurse Practitioner Practicum Manual and will abide by the requirements described in order to successfully complete this program.

 

What’s Coming Up in Week 2?

Photo Credit: [BrianAJackson]/[iStock / Getty Images Plus]/Getty Images

Next week, you will examine alterations in the immune system and the resultant disease processes. You will also consider patient characteristics, including racial and ethnic variables, that may impact altered physiology.

Practicum – Upcoming Deadline

In the Nurse Practitioner programs of study (FNP, AGACNP, AGPCNP, and PMHNP) you are required to take several practicum courses. If you plan on taking a practicum course within the next two terms, you will need to submit your application via Meditrek .

For information on the practicum application process and deadlines, please visit the Field Experience: College of Nursing: Application Process – Graduate web page.

Please take the time to review the Appropriate Preceptors and Field Sites for your courses.

Please take the time to review the practicum manuals, FAQs, Webinars and any required forms on the Field Experience: College of Nursing: Student Resources and Manuals web page.

Next Week

To go to the next week:

 

Week 1: Cellular Processes and the Genetic Environment

One of the more common biology analogies refers to cells as the “building blocks” of life. This rightfully places an emphasis on understanding cells, cellular behavior, and the impact of the environment in which they function.

Such an understanding helps explain how healthy cell activity contributes to good health. Just as importantly, it helps explain how breakdowns in cellular behavior and alterations to cells lead to health issues.

This week, you examine cellular processes that are subject to alterations that can lead to disease. You evaluate the genetic environments within which these processes exist as well as the impact these environments have on disease.

Learning Objectives

Students will:

  • Evaluate cellular processes and alterations within cellular processes
  • Evaluate the impact of the genetic environment on disease

Learning Resources

Required Readings (click to expand/reduce)

 

McCance, K. L. & Huether, S. E. (2019). Pathophysiology: The biologic basis for disease in adults and children (8th ed.). St. Louis, MO: Mosby/Elsevier.

  • Chapter 1: Cellular Biology; Summary Review
  • Chapter 2: Altered Cellular and Tissue Biology: Environmental Agents (pp. 46-61; begin again with Manifestations of Cellular Injury pp. 83-97); Summary Review
  • Chapter 3: The Cellular Environment: Fluids and Electrolytes, Acids, and Bases
  • Chapter 4: Genes and Genetic Diseases (stop at Elements of formal genetics); Summary Review
  • Chapter 5: Genes, Environment-Lifestyle, and Common Diseases (stop at Genetics of common diseases); Summary Review
  • Chapter 7: Innate Immunity: Inflammation and Wound Healing
  • Chapter 8: Adaptive Immunity (stop at Generation of clonal diversity); Summary Review
  • Chapter 9: Alterations in Immunity and Inflammation (stop at Deficiencies in immunity); Summary Review
  • Chapter 10: Infection (pp. 289–303; stop at Infectious parasites and protozoans); (start at HIV); Summary Review
  • Chapter 11: Stress and Disease (stop at Stress, illness & coping); Summary Review
  • Chapter 12: Cancer Biology (stop at Resistance to destruction); Summary Review
  • Chapter 13: Cancer Epidemiology (stop at Environmental-Lifestyle factors); Summary Review

Justiz-Vaillant, A. A., & Zito, P. M. (2019). Immediate hypersensitivity reactions. In StatPearls. Treasure Island, FL: StatPearls Publishing. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK513315/

Credit Line: Immediate Hypersensitivity Reactions – StatPearls – NCBI Bookshelf. (2019, June 18). Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK513315/. Used with permission of Stat Pearls

 

Required Media (click to expand/reduce)

 

Module 1 Overview with Dr. Tara Harris 

Dr. Tara Harris reviews the structure of Module 1 as well as the expectations for the module. Consider how you will manage your time as you review your media and Learning Resources throughout the module to prepare for your Discussion and Assignment. (4m)

Foundational Concepts of Cellular Pathophysiology – Week 1 (14m)

Immunity and Inflammation

Khan Academy (2010, February 24). Inflammatory response | Human anatomy and physiology | Health & medicine [Video file]. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=FXSuEIMrPQk  

Note: The approximate length of the media program is 14 minutes.

Soo, P. (2018, July 28). Pathophysiology Ch 10 alterations in immune function [Video file]. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Jz0wx1-jTds   

Note: The approximate length of the media program is 37 minutes.

 

Acid-Base Balance #1

MedCram. (2012, April 28). Medical acid base balance, disorders & ABGs explained clearly [Video file]. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4wMEMhvrQxE 

Note: The approximate length of the media program is 13 minutes.

 

Acid-Base Balance #2

MedCram. (2012, April 29). Medical acid base balance, disorders & ABGs explained clearly | 2 of 8 [Video file]. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=GmEeKVTpOKI  

Note: The approximate length of the media program is 15 minutes.

 

Hyponatremia

MedCram. (2017, December 23). Hyponatremia explained clearly (remastered) – Electrolyte imbalances [Video file]. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bLajK5Vy55M 

Note: The approximate length of the media program is 15 minutes.

 

Online Media from Pathophysiology: The Biologic Basis for Disease in Adults and Children

In addition to this week’s media, it is highly recommended that you access and view the resources included with the course text, Pathophysiology: The Biologic Basis for Disease in Adults and Children. Focus on the videos and animations in Chapters 3, 7, and 8 that relate to alterations in immunity, hyponatremia, and acid/base balance.

Note: To access the online resources included with the text, you need to complete the FREE online registration that is located at https://evolve.elsevier.com/cs/store?role=student

To Register to View the Content

  1. Go to https://evolve.elsevier.com/cs/store?role=student
  2. Enter the name of the textbook, Pathophysiology: The Biologic Basis for Disease in Adults and Children, or ISBN 9780323654395 (name of text without the edition number) in the Search textbox.
  3. Complete the registration process.

To View the Content for This Text

  1. Go to https://evolve.elsevier.com/
  2. Click on Student Site.
  3. Type in your username and password.
  4. Click on the Login button.
  5. Click on the plus sign icon for Resources on the left side of the screen.
  6. Click on the name of the textbook for this course.
  7. Expand the menu on the left to locate all the chapters.
  8. Navigate to the desired content (checklists, videos, animations, etc.).

Note: Clicking on the URLs in the APA citations for the Resources from the textbook will not link directly to the desired online content. Use the online menu to navigate to the desired content.

Rubric Detail

Select Grid View or List View to change the rubric’s layout.

Content

Name: NURS_6501_Discussion_Rubric

  Excellent Good Fair Poor
Main Posting Points Range: 45 (45%) – 50 (50%)

Answers all parts of the Discussion question(s) with reflective critical analysis and synthesis of knowledge gained from the course readings for the module and current credible sources.

Supported by at least three current, credible sources.

Written clearly and concisely with no grammatical or spelling errors and fully adheres to current APA manual writing rules and style.

Points Range: 40 (40%) – 44 (44%)

Responds to the Discussion question(s) and is reflective with critical analysis and synthesis of knowledge gained from the course readings for the module.

At least 75% of post has exceptional depth and breadth.

Supported by at least three credible sources.

Written clearly and concisely with one or no grammatical or spelling errors and fully adheres to current APA manual writing rules and style.

Points Range: 35 (35%) – 39 (39%)

Responds to some of the Discussion question(s).

One or two criteria are not addressed or are superficially addressed.

Is somewhat lacking reflection and critical analysis and synthesis.

Somewhat represents knowledge gained from the course readings for the module.

Post is cited with two credible sources.

Written somewhat concisely; may contain more than two spelling or grammatical errors.

Contains some APA formatting errors.

Points Range: 0 (0%) – 34 (34%)

Does not respond to the Discussion question(s) adequately.

Lacks depth or superficially addresses criteria.

Lacks reflection and critical analysis and synthesis.

Does not represent knowledge gained from the course readings for the module.

Contains only one or no credible sources.

Not written clearly or concisely.

Contains more than two spelling or grammatical errors.

Does not adhere to current APA manual writing rules and style.

Main Post: Timeliness Points Range: 10 (10%) – 10 (10%)

Posts main post by Day 3.

Points Range: 0 (0%) – 0 (0%)

N/A

Points Range: 0 (0%) – 0 (0%)

N/A

Points Range: 0 (0%) – 0 (0%)

Does not post main post by Day 3.

First Response Points Range: 17 (17%) – 18 (18%)

Response exhibits synthesis, critical thinking, and application to practice settings.

Provides clear, concise opinions and ideas that are supported by at least two scholarly sources.

Demonstrates synthesis and understanding of Learning Objectives.

Communication is professional and respectful to colleagues.

Responses to faculty questi

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