NRS 433 Assignment Rough Draft Qualitative Research Critique and Ethical Considerations GCU
The shortage of nurses in the ICU is a huge challenge for healthcare providers in the US. It has increased the demand for more nurses and nurse turnover rates, affecting patients and their families. It also affects nursing professionals. For example, reports have found that many nurses have considered leaving their job due to stress related to the workload while others have developed mental related issues such as anxiety and burnout. Healthcare organizations continuously to witness this challenge and it occurs due to manys reasons, including high acuity/admission levels. Many studies have been conducted in this area to understand the issue better. This essay evaluates and critques two qualitative studies examining staffing levels and how they affect patient safety, infection control, and nurse and patient stress in the ICU. It will include different elements such as author’s obejectives, reseach methods, research findings and the ethial considerations that the authors of the qualitiative articles employed.
In the ICU departments, do sufficient nurse workers (I) prevent the occurrence of medical errors, infections, and stress among patients and nurses themselves (O) within one year (T) compared to inadequate nurse workers (C)?
Population (P) – The target population is the patients in the ICU.
Intervention (I) – Sufficient nurse workers
Comparison (C) – Inadequate nurse workers.
Outcome (O) -Prevents infections, stress, and medical errors among the patients and nurses
Time (T) – The duration is one year.
Background of Studies
Banda et al. (2019) investigate how nurses at Queen Elizabeth Central Hospital’s ICU in Malawi view the issue of a high workload on patient care. Using a purposive sample technique, the researchers selected research participants based on how long they had previously worked at the hospital. They then provided them with informed consent. The researchers then performed ten in-depth interviews to collect the research data. After collecting data, they evaluated it using Braun & Clarke’s theme analysis method. According to the study, ICU nurses and critically ill patients suffer when nurses are overworked. It jeopardizes patient safety and hinders providing quality care. Additionally, it harms the nurses’ health. It suggests that nurses are worried about the harmful effects that heavy workloads have on patient care. Adding more ICU nurses is necessary to address this problem.
Bridges et al. (2019) examine how patients interact with nursing and staffing regarding quality and quantity. It involves tracking patient outcomes for a year while using various staff ratios. Investigators then performed regression analysis to examine the information gathered on patient care quality. They discovered that compared to nurses who handled fewer patients, those with at least eight patients exhibited poor engagement with them.
How The Two Articles Support the Nursing Practice Problem
Banda et al. (2019) examine nurses’ opinions on the problem of high workloads in the ICU. Thus, the study seeks to determine the idea behind workloads in patient care at the ICU. Similarly, Bridges et al. (2019) studied how patients feel about a situation when patient satisfaction with their care is high or poor. Both studies supported the PICOT question by stating that understaffing is a factor in the serious difficulties encountered in the ICU. They established that it hurts health outcomes. According to Banda et al. (2019), both ICU nurses and critically ill patients suffer when nurses are overworked. It jeopardizes patient safety and hinders providing quality care. In addition, it harms nurses’ health, contributing significantly to the ICU’s healthcare issues. Bridges et al. (2019) found that nurses with at least eight patients had poorer interactions with them than those with fewer.
Method of Studies
Banda et al. (2019) employed purposive sampling to select research participants based on the duration they had worked directly at the hospital. They then provided their informed consent. The researchers then performed ten in-depth interviews to collect the research data. After collecting data, they evaluated it using Braun & Clarke’s theme analysis method. Researchers from Bridges et al. (2019) studied patient outcomes based on various staff ratios for a year. Regression analysis was then utilized to examine the information acquired regarding the standard of patient care. Therefore, the approaches used in these two situations differed since Bridges et al. (2019) relied on observation while Banda et al. (2019) used interviews.
The method makes it easier to get detailed information because the interview questions are open-ended, which helps to clarify the research question. Banda et al. (2019) involved ten interviews to get first-hand information about how ICU nurses in Queen Elizabeth Central Hospital, Blantyre, Malawi, perceive the high workload on patient care. However, the interviewing technique will probably introduce considerable biases, leading to incorrect data. Various circumstances that may come into play throughout the interview could cause this issue. In Banda et al. (2019), the researchers did not involve nurse managers, despite their significant role in healthcare. Thus, there are possibilities that the investigation missed out on some crucial data related to the management.
Since the researcher can verify the accuracy of the data gathered, the observation approach is quite accurate. For example, real-time ward-based staff and interaction data significantly improved upon flaws found in earlier studies. (Bridges et al., 2019). Similarly, the investigator can use various tools to identify the behaviors under examination. As opposed to interviewing, the researcher merely uses the participants’ responses as the data source. Some natural phenomena, however, are hard to record during the study using the observation approach because the researchers cannot pinpoint their exact location and timing. Data from independent care observations may not be a good surrogate for the real patient experience, according to (Bridges et al., 2019).
Results of Studies
According to Banda et al. (2019), the nurses’ severe workloads put patients’ safety at risk by giving them subpar care. Additionally, they found that the welfare of the nurses was in danger due to heavy workloads. According to Bridges et al. (2019) researchers, patient-nurse conflict occasionally prevents patients from receiving the care they need.Banda et al. (2019) state that managers and policymakers should focus on hiring more ICU nurses and putting other solutions in place to address the issue of high workloads and the effects they have on patient care. Researchers in Bridges et al. (2019) also advise the need to understand what causes a poor relationship between nurses and their patients when there is a reduced staffing ratio.
There is a need for approval from the relevant authorities to ensure that the study complies with ethical guidelines and safeguards the participant’s rights. Banda et al. (2019) approved the study by the College of Medicine Research and Ethical Committee (COMREC). Bridges et al. (2019) study was approved by the Social Care Research Ethics Committee for England. Thus, both investigations followed the necessary rules and regulations. Researchers must also obtain informed consent from participants before proceeding with their study. The participants are informed about the research purpose, their rights, the possible benefits and risks, and the research procedure. After this, the participants must sign a consent form revealing their willingness to be part of the study. Banda et al. (2019) gave informed consent to all the research participants before beginning the study. However, due to the nature of the research, Bridges et al. (2019) did not seek consent.
Both Banda et al. (2019) and Bridges et al. (2019) investigated the shortage of nurses in the ICU, an issue of concern in the US, affecting both patients and healthcare providers. Banda et al. (2019) explore nurses’ perspectives on the issue of heavy workloads in the ICU. At the same time, Bridges et al. (2019) examine how patients feel about their satisfaction with the care they receive, both when it is high and when it is low. Bridges et al. (2019) used an observation method, while Banda et al. (2019) employed an interviewing method. While the two approaches had some advantages, they also had a fair share of limitations. The two studies revealed that the issue of high workload affects the entire healthcare sector, and it should be solved. The results from both studies are reliable enough since they adhered to ethical considerations.
Banda, Z., Simbota, M., & Mula, C. (2019). Nurses’ perceptions on the effects of high nursing workload on patient care in an intensive care unit of a referral hospital in Malawi: a qualitative study. BMC nursing, 21(1), 1-7. doi: 10.1186/s12912-022-00918-x.
Bridges, J., Griffiths, P., Oliver, E., & Pickering, R. M. (2019). Hospital nurse staffing and staff–patient interactions: an observational study. BMJ quality & safety, 28(9), 706-713. DOI: 10.1136/bmjqs-2018-008948
Write a critical appraisal that demonstrates comprehension of two qualitative research studies. Use the “Research Critique Guidelines – Part 1” document to organize your essay. Successful completion of this assignment requires that you provide rationale, include examples, and reference content from the studies in your responses.
Use the practice problem and two qualitative, peer-reviewed research article you identified in the Topic 1 assignment to complete this assignment.
In a 1,000–1,250 word essay, summarize two qualitative studies, explain the ways in which the findings might be used in nursing practice, and address ethical considerations associated with the conduct of the study.
You are required to cite a minimum of three peer-reviewed sources to complete this assignment. Sources must be published within the
last 5 years, appropriate for the assignment criteria, and relevant to nursing practice.
Prepare this assignment according to the guidelines found in the APA Style Guide, located in the Student Success Center. An abstract is not required.
This assignment uses a rubric. Please review the rubric prior to beginning the assignment to become familiar with the expectations for successful completion.
You are required to submit this assignment to LopesWrite. A link to the LopesWrite technical support articles is located in Class Resources if you need assistance.