NRS 428 Epidemiology Paper Assignment
Descriptive epidemiology explores the risk factors of a given disease through a narration of the people, place and time. In the field of nursing, the analysis of people is of utmost paramount as it defines the population at-risk of a given condition (Naito, 2014). In Part One of this study, the role of descriptive epidemiology in nursing science was elaborated using a specific example of tuberculosis (TB). However, the descriptive analysis of the health issue explored in Part One remains incomplete as the depth of the data about the condition is inadequate. Essentially, it is imperative for Doctor of Nursing Practice (DNP) nurses to understand and identify the at-risk populations in nursing science (Hong et al., 2018). The premise guides in the development of an intervention plan in order to improve the overall health outcomes for the selected population group. As such, the present research delves into a description of the at-risk population with regard to TB infections in the United States of America. Moreover, the article explores how the selected population can be affected by nursing science and potential barriers arising from a given health promotion strategy. The excerpt also identifies stakeholders and potential agencies that can collaborate to provide a health solution on the spread of TB for the identified at-risk populations.
An Existing At-Risk Population
At-risk populations are people vulnerable to a given health condition related to inequalities in access to quality care. The individuals may be disenfranchised to quality health services due to their economic status, race, level of education and geographical location. One of the outstanding goals for the Healthy Population 2020 is to eliminate health disparities among the at-risk populations (Salinas, 2016). In order to address the inequities in quality care, the DNP needs to identify the population at risk of a given health issue and therefore familiarize themselves with the prevalence rates within the selected area. Besides, the DNP needs to identify specific distinctions regarding the health status of the selected population groups in order to assist in the formulation of an intervention plan.
In the United States of America, the distribution and the magnitude of occurrences of different ailments are determined by the at-risk populations. Occasionally, the immigrant populations, the poor, the elderly and the sick comprise a majority of the at-risk populations in the US (Scott et al., 2015). Tuberculosis can be included as one of the infectious diseases that disproportionately affect different populations in the United States of America. Particularly, the vulnerable populations readily affected by the condition are differentiated based on the immigration status, geographical location, race and income status (Ai et al., 2016). Specifically, a high risk of transmission of TB is prevalent among migrants, displaced populations and injecting drug users. Besides, itinerant people and homeless populations bear the brunt of TB infections in the United States of America.
A high prevalence of TB occurs among the migrant populations and refugees especially among people from economically deprived countries. Particularly, the condition has a disproportionate impact on immigrants from Africa, Asia, and the Caribbean. These populations may encounter instances of social exclusion, disrupted social networks as well as reduced access to quality health care (Norheim et al., 2017). Besides, lack of trust, respect or understanding of the immigrants in the non-native countries affects the health-seeking patterns of this population hence they become vulnerable to infections such as TB. In 2017, the United States of America recorded the lowest rates of TB in which 2.8 per 100,000 people were reported. However, within the same year, 70% of the TB cases were diagnosed in non-native populations migrating in the country (Hong et al., 2018). According to the World Health Organization data of 2015, different immigrant populations recorded a varied number of individuals infected by the TB condition per 100,000 people. The Philippines recorded the highest at 322 while India had 217 people with the infection. Viet Nam had 137, Korea recorded 80 and China reported 67. Ecuador had 52 while El Salvador and Honduras recorded 43 each (Tibebu & Hebo, 2019). Immigrants from Guatemala had 25 people infected with the condition while Mexico recorded the least number at 21 individuals per 100, 0000 people.
The prevalence of TB is high among the displaced populations in the United States of America. The rates account for about 56% of the total infections of the condition. Displaced populations from Asia, Africa, and Latin America accounts for the highest incidence rates of the infection among the displaced populations (Salinas, 2016). TB cases among the homeless people are 20 times higher when compared to the infections among the general populations.
According to the Federal government Healthy people 2020, The SDOH is defined as “the conditions in the environment in which people are born, learn, live, play, work, worship, and age that affect a wide range of health, functioning, and quality of life outcomes and risks”. The Social Determined of health (SDOH), which affects the family health status, according to the assessment and interview, conducted on topic 2, identified the individual domain as an environmental factor affecting his Health.
The SDOH contributing to the family’s health status are conditions that make up our social, economic, and physical environments. The impact not only affects our physical health but also can have a major
influence on a person’s mental health and their misuse of alcohol and their family and quality of life.
The SDOH can be categorized into 5 domains
Neighborhood and built environment
Health and Health care
Social and community context
Education Access and Quality
Exposure to adverse SDOH factors can increase the level of stress experienced by individuals, which can raise the risk of experiencing mental health issues, and substance use problems, like alcohol abuse, these are some of the issues that are prevalent in this individual identified by our evaluation assessment. The reason these factors are prevalent is because of the environment the family is exposed to.
Based on the information gathered through the family health assessment we recommend the appropriate screenings for each family member begin at an early age, children are sometimes exposed to traumas like divorce, Neighborhood violence, alcohol or substance use by family, for example, and are disproportionately exposed to trauma likely to be vulnerable to substance use. However, exposure to adverse events during childhood is associated with an increased likelihood of developing mental health conditions and substance and alcohol abuse disorders in adulthood. Children living in poverty and racial and ethnic minorities are more likely to experience adverse childhood events, children with parents with mental health conditions also are more likely to develop mental health conditions, same with alcoholic parents, children are more likely to become alcoholics Lindsey M, (2020).
The health plan I choose for our individual plan of action will be a prevention model that initiatives focus on implementing coordinated strategies across different sectors in neighborhoods with social, economic, and environmental barriers because that leads to poor health outcomes and health disparities. Prevention improving the educational, economic, and health outcomes of the community through a broad range of family-based, social service, and health programs ODPHP, (2020
According to (PMC, 2020). Family-centered health promotion is a promising strategy because the family unit is both, a resource, and a priority group needing preventive services across the life course, growing numbers of successful efforts, family health systems are underutilized in health promotion practice, lacking, and hampering the collection of robust evidence of family health. Family unity plays a significant role in maintaining health and preventing disease because members may support and nurture one another through life stages and over time. According to “The family’s capacity to nurture, care, protect, teach, and influence throughout the life course makes it an effective entry point in the promotion and maintenance of individual and collective health and a vital component for public health practice.” The strategies of communication will be used with channels that can allow health messages that change people’s lives with interpersonal, small group, or community groups, Health communication strategies aim to change people’s knowledge, attitudes, and/or behaviors, for example:
Increase risk perception
Reinforce positive behaviors
Influence social norms
Increase availability of support and needed services
Empower individuals to change or improve their health conditions. (RHIH,2022).
“The family or household setting is the natural place where many health behaviors, good or bad, are developed, maintained, and changed. Preliminary research confirms that family-oriented health promotion and disease prevention are promising strategies because the family unit is both a resource and a priority group needing preventative and curative services across the life course. Furthermore, there are growing numbers of successful efforts, family health systems are underutilized in health promotion practice.” RHIH, (2022).
NRS 428 Epidemiology Paper Assignment Social Determinants of Health that Contribute to the
Development of HIV/AIDS
The social determinants are factors influencing the risk of transmission of HIV/AIDs disease. Social activities influence the spread of the disease significantly and that is why community behavioral modification campaigns are developed to promote healthy lifestyles among people. The rate of transmission of the disease varies from one social setting to another due to various reasons. The social determinants for HIV/AIDS include sexual violence, gender inequality, marital status, migratory behaviors in search of employment, geographic locations, and stigma related to HIV/AIDS and legal status (Laurencin et al., 2018). Also, promiscuity is linked to the high spread of the disease. Victims of sexual violence such as rape are also most likely to contract the disease and that is why they must be tested. The incidences of HIV/AIDs cases among the victims of rape and sexual violence are high and this could be because the perpetrators of the crimes are sometimes influenced by the desire to revenge. Exploring social factors is important in the fight against HIV/AIDS because it focuses on reducing risky behaviors and promoting responsibility among the populations.
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Epidemiologic Triangle as it Relates to the HIV/AIDS
The epidemiological triangle focus on the relationship between the host, agent, and environment. The triangle also helps in guiding the prevention measures. In this case, reducing the interaction between the agent, the host, and the environment. In this case, the agent refers to HIV which is a pathogenic micro-organism. The virus targeted the human CD4 cells and this means eliminating the receptors for the viral attachment into the host could reduce the infection rate. The host in the triangle refers to human beings. Human beings harbor the virus in their system (Bandera et al., 2018). Human beings act as carriers for the virus and they can spread it through sexual intercourse and blood transfusion among other methods as discussed above. The transmission and spread of the virus entirely depend on human behavior. Finally, the environment refers to the environmental factors facilitating the spread of the virus. Some of the factors include social pressure, lack of adequate healthcare system to create interventions for the vulnerable groups, and the increasing poverty rates in some areas that lead to prostitution or increased sexual activities for income.
Education and awareness creation are important tools for fighting the spread of HIV/AIDs. Education and awareness create consciousness among the population to avoid social activities that could predispose them to the disease. On the other hand, it also helps in preventing unwanted behaviors such as stigmatization which reduces the willingness of the people to go for screening and thus increases the risk of transmission. Lack of screening is associated with high transmission and spread of the disease by people who may not know that they have the disease. Other preventive measures have always included abstinence from sex and adherence to antiretroviral drugs.
Role of the Community Health Nurse in the Management of HIV/AIDS: NRS 428 Epidemiology Paper Assignment
Community health nurses play critical roles when it comes to the management of HIV/AIDS. Their involvement in the intervention processes aids in stopping the spread of the virus and subsequent reduction in the number of cases across different regions. Community health nurses facilitate case findings, data collection processes in the research processes to identify the required interventions, and follow-ups to determine the effectiveness of the required interventions. Win the increasing cases of HIV/AIDS; there is always the need for research processes that can help in the development of the epidemiological triangle; these studies require the intervention of the community health nurses, epidemiologists as well as other healthcare professionals (Bandera et al., 2018). Community health nurses play critical roles when it comes to the management of different complications associated with HIV/AIDS. In their process of engagement with the infected persons or victims, they often tend to enhance case findings, case reporting, data collection, and analysis, NRS 428 Epidemiology Paper Assignment.
Demographic data are critical for the health of the community. They enhance the research processes aimed at establishing effective research processes. The demographic data can establish the trends or rates of HIV/AIDS infections. Demographic data are often used to develop epidemiological methods for disease surveillance to determine the critical hazards associated with the disease. Demographic data are also used in the studies to identify the risk factors that may represent the critical control points in the management of HIV/AIDS.
Agencies Involved in Addressing HIV/AIDS-NRS 428 Epidemiology Paper Assignment
The agencies involved in fighting HIV/AIDS establish measures and protocols to reduce the spread of the disease. One of the agencies involved in addressing HIV/AIDS is the USAID (U.S Agency for International Development). The agency was established in 1986 to support the PRPFAR programs in more than 100 nations (Bandera et al., 2018). The agency is involved in the management of HIV/AIDS programs by targeting vulnerable populations or those at high risk of being infected by HIV/AIDs.
The agency offers support to the HIV/AIDs programs to various nations. They set goals for the various nations to eradicate the disease and improve adherence to the people on medications. The agency focuses on strengthening the primary healthcare systems to prevent and enhance the management of HIV/AIDS (Bandera et al., 2018). Furthermore, through constant research, the agency establishes new measures of reaching more populations in terms of screening and curbing the spread of the disease. Various agencies work together to achieve a synergized outcomes on fighting HIV/AIDs and promoting positive behavioral patterns among the populations.
Global Implication of HIV/AIDS: NRS 428 Epidemiology Paper Assignment
The impact of HIV/AIDs is wide-reaching. There are currently many orphans in the world courtesy of the HIV/AIDS disease. Therefore, the analysis of the burden of the disease should focus on both the social and financial impacts. It is estimated that about 770,000 people died of HIV/AIDS disease in 2018. The statistics show that many people have died over time and the number of people left as orphans is high. The majority of the orphans tend to be dependent and this shows that HIV/AIDS creates a significant economic crisis.
According to (Bandera et al., 2018), 1.7 million new infections new cases of HIV/AIDs have been reported this year with many families being destabilized due to death. For example, in cases where a family loses their breadwinner to the virus, their living conditions change significantly. Therefore, high incidences of HIV/AIDS are linked to high poverty levels. Furthermore, government institutions have to spend a lot of money on HIV/AIDS drugs, screening, and health promotion. Besides, it takes a lot of resources to manage the complications arising from the infection.
The rise in healthcare costs is always addressed by developing measures aiming at reducing the spread of the disease among the populations. While many organizations donate funds to fight the disease, such measures may not be sustainable as many resources could be lost in the process. Therefore, reducing the spread of the infection is the main target in the minimization of the costs incurred in the health sector. Various foundations have been established include the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation which supports many people living with HIV/AIDS in Africa (Bandera et al., 2018). HIV is endemic in some regions due to poor cultural and social practices. Statistics indicate that the disease is becoming endemic in sub-Saharan Africa, with an estimated prevalence rate of 12%; this is higher than the global prevalence rate of 5%.
NRS 428 Epidemiology Paper Assignment Conclusion
The Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) affects many populations globally both directly and indirectly. The disease is mainly transmitted through sexual intercourse, though, people may also contract it through blood transfusion and sharing sharp objects with infected individuals. Early diagnosis is key in reducing the spread of the disease since people initiated on ARTs develop low viral load which has a lower infectivity rate. Furthermore, the efforts directed to fight the disease should be guided by epidemiological information; more efforts should be directed to the endemic regions. Creating awareness and educating the public on the burden of HIV/AIDS disease is important in its eradication.
NRS 428 Epidemiology Paper Assignment References
Bandera, A., De Benedetto, I., Bozzi, G., & Gori, A. (2018). Altered gut microbiome composition in HIV infection: causes, effects, and potential intervention. Current opinion in HIV and AIDS, 13(1), 73-80.
Labrique, A. B., Vasudevan, L., Kochi, E., Fabricant, R., &Mehl, G. (2016). eHealth innovations as health system strengthening tools: 12 common applications and a visual framework. Global Health: Science and Practice, 1(2), 160-171.
Laurencin, C. T., Murdock, C. J., Laurencin, L., & Christensen, D. M. (2018). HIV/AIDS and the African-American community 2018: a decade call to action. Journal of racial and ethnic health disparities, 5(3), 449-458.
Epidemiology Paper – Rubric
Epidemiology Paper-Chicken Pox
Chicken Pox is among one of the viral diseases that are highly contagious and prevalent among children. The condition is also referred to as Varicella and its early symptoms include the development of papule and vesicles accompanied by fever. In the early years of the disease, scientists were unable to differentiate between chicken pox and small pox until in the 19th century. By the end of the 16th century, Italian scientist Giovani Fillipo describe the first case of chicken pox.Further research work was conducted and in 1767 William Heberden came up with the differentiation between chicken pox and small pox (Presti et al., 2019). After conducting more research, Von Bokay concluded in 1875 that chicken pox is highly contagious due to it causative agent. In his studies, Bokay also made an observation in 1909 that helped in the differentiation of the two diseases. In 1954, Thomas Weller first isolated the causative agent of chicken pox. The first attenuated vaccine of the disease was developed in 1972 by Michiaki Takahashi. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the epidemiology of chicken pox.
Description of the Disease
The disease is caused by a highly contagious virus, varicella zoster (VZV) that is air-borne. The virus can be spread from an infected person to other people through the droplets from coughing or sneezing that are inhaled by the uninfected person. The virus particles are transmitted when uninfected person comes into contact with the viral particles shed from the patients or through inhalation of contaminated air (Yu, Ashworth, Hughes, & Jones, 2018). There are other unlikely means like sharing items with an infected person and the items were in contact with the open blisters on the patient. Individuals who have never contracted the disease and have not been vaccinated are at a greater risk of contracting the disease. Virology experts consider the VZV to be spread within one to two days upon the blisters from the infected person burst open, however, the incubation period is about 14 to 16 days upon which the symptoms become visible (Presti et al., 2019). The initial stages of disease are characterized by cold-like symptoms of sore throat, fever, running nose and malaise.
The major onset of the major symptoms of disease is marked by the development of the red spots from the trunk and scalp region, and then they spread out to other parts of the body. Red spots also affect the mucus membrane and would be seen spread out in the mouth and also along the nasal cavity. The red spots develop into vesicles that have the shape of a teardrop and within a period of eight hours, they turn into crusty lesions (Gray & Cathie, 2019). Newly formed spots with continue with the development as the old ones dry off and disappear. Research findings reveals that it takes about five days for the development of the new lesions to cease but the crusts take up to twenty days to disappear from the body.
Furthermore, the disease is characterized by an irresistible urge of itching that causes the patient to scratch the vesicles hence increased risk of developing cellulitis. It is a skin condition caused by bacterial infection (Cassidy and McBrien, 2019). There are other symptoms such as inflammation of the brain tissue, death of the soft tissue of the skin, sepsis and a streptococcal infection associated with Reye Syndrome. These additional symptoms are only common to patients who have a weakened immune system. In most of the cases, the diagnosis of the disease is based on the observable symptoms such as fever and a rush. However, additional confirmatory test can be carried out by taking a specimen sample from the lesion and it is cultured for a period of five to ten days.
The treatment of chicken pox is focused on managing the symptoms associated with the disease. The symptoms to be managed include the fever and the itchy rushes on the skin. This treatment model, aims at helping the patient alleviate the discomfort of the symptoms as they might take longer than expected if not treated. It naturally takes about two to three weeks for the symptoms to disappear. The pruritus symptoms are managed by taking antihistamine drugs like Benadryl or Atarax (Shin et al., 2017). The blisters are managed by using a wet compress. NSAIDS such as ibuprofen or acetaminophen are used to relieve the fever.
Additionally, given that the causative agent of the disease is a virus, the disease can further be managed by use of antiviral agents such as acyclovir and Val acyclovir. These pharmacological agents, help in healing process as they reduce the incubation period. The use of these agents is recommended immediately after being infected, to increase their efficiency and effectiveness (Duncan, 2019). The treatment program should also include adequate use of electrolytes to ensure that the patient is well hydrated. Moreover, hygiene is also considered a priority in the management of the disease. One should keep short nails and take frequent baths to keep the whole body clean.
The vaccine for chicken pox, Varivax, was developed and approved by the FDA in 1995. The vaccine has been used for many years and it is believed to have a 90 percent. The vaccine efficiency is low in children of age less than a year (Reisinger et al., 2019). The patient develops mild symptoms of chicken pox after receiving the Vivax vaccine, hence proving the effectiveness of the vaccine against the VZV. It is also effective in preventing contracting shingles. The VZV is also associated with shingles, which results from the virus being in a prolonged dormant stage within the Central Nervous System (CNS) that is reactivated over a period of time. There is high prevalence of chicken pox in children of age between one and four years, even though it is also still high in teenagers of up to age of 15 years. The virulence of the virus has decreased over the years. With the use of Vivax vaccine there has been significant reduction in the mortalities and comorbidities associated with chicken pox. However, in some regions of the world the disease is still a pandemic affectiPLACE THIS ORDER OR A SIMILAR ORDER WITH SUPERIOR NURSING PAPERS TODAY AND GET AN AMAZING DISCOUNT