NRS 410 Topic 2 Discussion Question Two
Identify a common perceptual, neurological, or cognitive issue and discuss contributing factors. Outline steps for prevention or health promotion for the patient and family.
Re: Topic 2 DQ 1
A stroke is classified as a neurological disorder and can cause perception and cognitive issues. A stroke is also known as a brain attack and occurs when something blocks blood supply to part of the brain or when a blood vessel in the brain bursts (CDC, 2019). Stroke is the fifth leading cause of death in the United States and is a serious cause of disability in older adults. Conditions that are contributing factors include previous stroke or Transient Ischemic Attack also known as a mini stroke, high blood pressure, high cholesterol, heart disease, diabetes, and sickle cell disease (CDC, 2019). Behaviors that will increase risk are unhealthy diet, physical inactivity, obesity, too much alcohol use, and tobacco use. Strokes can also be genetic and more common in some families and is also more common in women than men and the chances of stroke double every ten years as someone ages (CDC, 2019).
The good news is that lots can be done to try to prevent strokes. With the right prevention and health promotion in place ones risk of stroke can be a lot lower. Firstly, having a healthy diet such as foods low is saturated fats, trans fat and cholesterol decrease ones risk. Limiting salt can also help lower blood pressure which is the leading cause of stroke. Health promotion such as maintaining a healthy weight, as well as physical activity will also decrease ones risk of stroke. Choosing not to smoke or working on quitting smoking is another way to prevent strokes because tobacco can damage the heart and blood vessels. Nicotine also raises blood pressure and reduces the amount of oxygen that one’s blood can carry. Limiting the amount of alcohol is another aspect of prevention and health promotion (CDC, 2019). NRS 410 Topic 2 Discussion Question Two
Center for Disease Control and Prevention. (2019). Stroke. Retrieved from: https://www.cdc.gov/stroke/index.htm
Re: Topic 2 DQ 1
Schizophrenia: Distorting Perception & Cognition
Schizophrenia is a serious chronic disorder of the brain causing perceptual changes and cognitive deficits, as well as social impairment. When symptoms are not adequately controlled with treatment, schizophrenia is characterized by delusions, hallucinations, and an impairment in thinking, concentration, and motivation. It can be difficult for someone with uncontrolled schizophrenia to decipher between what is real and what is not real. Due to its complexity and the prevalence of stereotypes, many misconceptions exist regarding the disorder.
Researchers believe schizophrenia affects both genders equally, but onset is earlier in males. Rates of the disorder are consistent around the world. There is no cure for schizophrenia, and those affected by the disorder tend to die sooner than the general population due to co-occurring conditions such as diabetes and heart disease.
Symptoms of schizophrenia fall into four categories. Positive psychotic symptoms include hallucinations, paranoid delusions, and amplified/distorted perceptions, beliefs and behaviors. Negative symptoms include a loss in the ability to plan, speak, and express emotions. A loss in pleasure is also noted. Disorganization symptoms include confusions and disordered thinking and speech, and abnormal behaviors and movements. Impaired cognition affects attention, concentration, memory, and intellectual ability. The disorder can also cause individuals to avoid people and neglect personal hygiene. NRS 410 Topic 2 Discussion Question Two
Researchers are still not certain what definitively causes schizophrenia, but it is believed that physical, genetic, psychological, and environmental factors place an individual at risk for developing the disorder. It is thought that schizophrenia may be hereditary. Additionally, researchers have detected subtle differences in brain development and structure in those with schizophrenia, and evidence suggests that the disorder may be caused by a disruption in the amount of dopamine and serotonin. Finally, researchers believe that those who experienced problems prior to or during their birth may be prone to schizophrenia. For those who are susceptible to schizophrenia, triggers include traumatic life events and drug abuse (cannabis, amphetamines, cocaine and LSD). Drug misuse can also initiate a relapse of acute schizophrenia.
Prevention of schizophrenia is typically at the secondary and tertiary level, where efforts are focused on preventing relapse and consequences of the disorder. Evidence shows that health promotion which focuses on enhancing the quality of life, self-esteem, and feelings of empowerment in targeted, at-risk populations may serve as primary health promotion for schizophrenia. Individuals with schizophrenia typically rely on medication, lifestyle changes, and psychological therapies in order to manage the disorder. Adherence to treatment can be quite a challenge, however, because the disorder causes individuals to believe they do not need treatment. To promote health in those with schizophrenia, education should be provided on signs and symptoms of acute episodes, taking medication as prescribed, reducing stress, encouraging healthy social ties, and avoiding illicit drugs and alcohol. Additionally, community resources such as support groups and employment/housing/educational assistance may be required. Nurses should encourage patients to focus on their strength and areas of health in their lives, which positively effects quality of life and creates a feeling of empowerment vital in managing the disorder. Health education should extend to the individual’s family, as family support is crucial in promoting the health of individuals with schizophrenia. Finally, nurses must advocate in the community for those with schizophrenia and other mental illnesses, in efforts to reduce stigma and promote social inclusion, awareness, education, and resources. Breaking down societal barriers and stigmas is vital in the prevention and health promotion of serious disorders such as schizophrenia. NRS 410 Topic 2 Discussion Question Two
Christodoulou, N. & Bhugra, D. (n.d.). HEALTH PROMOTION IN SCHIZOPHRENIA. James Pratt Hosting. Retrieved from http://jamespratthosting.com/supportingfamilies.org.nz/wp-content/uploads/2017/07/WFMH-Living-with-Schizophrenia-Section-2.pdf
NHS. (2019). Causes: Schizophrenia. Retrieved from https://www.nhs.uk/conditions/schizophrenia/causes/
Parekh, R. (2017). What is schizophrenia? American Psychiatric Association. Retrieved from https://www.psychiatry.org/patients-families/schizophrenia/what-is-schizophrenia
Grading Rubric Guidelines
Performance Category 10 9 8 4 0
Demonstrates achievement of scholarly inquiry for professional and academic decisions. • Provides relevant evidence of scholarly inquiry clearly stating how the evidence informed or changed professional or academic decisions
• Evaluates literature resources to develop a comprehensive analysis or synthesis.
• Uses valid, relevant, and reliable outside sources to contribute to the threaded discussion • Provides relevant evidence of scholarly inquiry but does not clearly state how the evidence informed or changed professional or academic decisions.
• Evaluates information from source(s) to develop a coherent analysis or synthesis.
• Uses some valid, relevant, reliable outside sources to contribute to the threaded discussion. • Discusses using scholarly inquiry but does not state how scholarly inquiry informed or changed professional or academic decisions.
• Information is taken from source(s) with some interpretation/evaluation, but not enough to develop a coherent analysis or synthesis.
• Little valid, relevant, or reliable outside sources are used to contribute to the threaded discussion.
• Demonstrates little or no understanding of the topic. • Discusses using scholarly inquiry but does not state how scholarly inquiry informed or changed professional or academic decisions.
• Information is taken from source(s) without any interpretation/evaluation.
• The posting uses information that is not valid, relevant, or reliable • No evidence of the use of scholarly inquiry to inform or change professional or academic decisions.
• Information is not valid, relevant, or reliable
Performance Category 10 9 8 4 0
Application of Course Knowledge –
Demonstrate the ability to analyze, synthesize, and/or apply principles and concepts learned in the course lesson and outside readings and relate them to real-life professional situations • Posts make direct reference to concepts discussed in the lesson or drawn from relevant outside sources;
• Applies concepts to personal experience in the professional setting and or relevant application to real life. • Posts make direct reference to concepts discussed in the lesson or drawn from relevant outside sources.
• Applies concepts to personal experience in their professional setting and or relevant application to real life
• Interactions with classmates are relevant to the discussion topic but do not make direct reference to lesson content • Posts are generally on topic but do not build knowledge by incorporating concepts and principles from the lesson.
• Does not attempt to apply lesson concepts to personal experience in their professional setting and or relevant application to real life
• Does not demonstrate a solid understanding of the principles and concepts presented in the lesson • Posts do not adequately address the question posed either by the discussion prompt or the instructor’s launch post.
• Posts are superficial and do not reflect an understanding of the lesson content
• Does not attempt to apply lesson concepts to personal experience in their professional setting and or relevant application to real life • Posts are not related to the topics provided by the discussion prompt or by the instructor; attempts by the instructor to redirect the student are ignored
• No discussion of lesson concepts to personal experience in the professional setting and or relevant application to real life
Performance Category 5 4 3 2 0
Replies to each graded thread topic posted by the course instructor, by Wednesday, 11:59 p.m. MT, of each week, and posts a minimum of two times in each graded thread, on separate days.
(5 points possible per graded thread) • Exceeds minimum post requirements
• Replies to each graded thread topic posted by the course instructor, by Wednesday, 11:59 p.m. MT, of each week, and posts three or more times in each graded thread, over three separate days.
• Replies to a post posed by faculty and to a peer
• Summarizes what was learned from the lesson, readings, and other student posts for the week. • Replies to each graded thread topic posted by the course instructor, by Wednesday, 11:59 p.m. MT, of each week, and posts a minimum of two times in each graded thread, on separate days
• Replies to a question posed by a peer
Summarizes what was learned from the lesson, readings, and other student posts for the week. • Meets expectations of 2 posts on 2 different days.
• The main post is not made by the Wednesday deadline
• Does not reply to a question posed by a peer or faculty • Has only one post for the week
• Discussion posts contain few, if any, new ideas or applications; often are a rehashing or summary of other students’ comments • Does not post to the thread
• No connections are made to the topic
Minus 1 Point Minus 2 Point Minus 3 Point Minus 4 Point Minus 5 Point
Grammar, Syntax, APA
Note: if there are only a few errors in these criteria, please note this for the student in as an area for improvement. If the student does not make the needed corrections in upcoming weeks, then points should be deducted.
Points deducted for improper grammar, syntax and APA style of writing.
The source of information is the APA Manual 6th Edition • 2-3 errors in APA format.
• Written responses have 2-3 grammatical, spelling, and punctuation errors.
• Writing style is generally clear, focused, and facilitates communication. • 4-5 errors in APA format.
• Writing responses have 4-5 grammatical, spelling and punctuation errors.
• Writing style is somewhat focused. • 6-7 errors in APA format.
• Writing responses have 6-7 grammatical, spelling and punctuation errors.
• Writing style is slightly focused making discussion difficult to understand. • 8-10 errors in APA format.
• Writing responses have 8-10 grammatical, spelling and punctuation errors.
• Writing style is not focused, making discussion difficult to understand. • Post contains greater than 10 errors in APA format.
• Written responses have more than 10 grammatical, spelling and punctuation errors.
• Writing style does not facilitate communication.
• The student continues to make repeated mistakes in any of the above areas after written correction by the instructor
0 points lost
-5 points lost
Total Participation Requirements
per discussion thread The student answers the threaded discussion question or topic on one day and posts a second response on another day. The student does not meet the minimum requirement of two postings on two different days
Early Participation Requirement
per discussion thread The student must provide a substantive answer to the graded discussion question(s) or topic(s), posted by the course instructor (not a response to a peer), by Wednesday, 11:59 p.m. MT of each week. The student does not meet the requirement of a substantive response to the stated question or topic by Wednesday at 11:59 pm MT.
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