HP 609 Week 3 Discussion 1: Racial and Ethnic Disparities

March 1, 2022

HP 609 Week 3 Discussion 1: Racial and Ethnic Disparities

HP 609 Week 3 Discussion 1: Racial and Ethnic Disparities

HP 609 Week 3 Discussion 1: Racial and Ethnic Disparities
The United States has a nickname as melting pot. The U.S. Census Bureau estimated more than 35% of the U.S population was made up of minorities 15 different types of race/ethic including White, Black, American Indian or Alaska Native, Asian Indian, Chinese, hispanic…etc. Per Shi et al.(2019), the health disparities are rooted to various racial/ ethic groups on health related lifestyles and health status. Different ethics other than white are somewhat practicing their own cultural remedy alongside with western medicine. Through the study by Cyphers et al.(2017), the religious beliefs already cast a positive effect in promoting healthy behavior in healthy pregnancy. The difference in ethnicity is likely to be a big part of the reason because diet habits, lifestyle and social image are shaping the community health and acceptance of diseases. For example, Hispanic American diets mainly contribute to starch, fried foods and high sugar drinks which are linked to diabetes and heart diseases. In addition, they are less likely to access the health care system due to language barrier, low socioeconomic status and illegal immigrants status. The high cost of health care premium and out of pocket cost limited the eligibility and affordability of Hispanic American to purchase insurance. In the article of Munoz et al. (2015), the author points out the gap in asset value and income between White and minorities in Boston city alone is devastating. Both cultural living habits and financial status cause impact in healthcare barriers. The other minority is American Indians and Alaska Native. As Hispanic population, Native American are also at the bottom of socioeconomic strata. Meantime, Their living locations are also mainly in rural areas which is difficult access into. It is difficult to build in any commercial healthcare system because the healthcare program is developed and administered by Native American. Despite the availability of healthcare access, due to high unemployment rate, limited educational background and cultures, wellness of Native American continues to be a concern.
The Affordable Care Act addressed the healthcare coverage access problem by mandating American to purchase medical insurance while lowering the requirement of enrollment as lift pre-conditions limitation, enhance preventive care and focus on quality of care by changing payable measurement (Cohn, 2021). The ACA increases health insurance coverage to all populations in American including the minorities. This policy is adopted and adjusted from the idea of Universal Care and proposed and executed by former president

HP 609 Week 3 Discussion 1 Racial and Ethnic Disparities

HP 609 Week 3 Discussion 1 Racial and Ethnic Disparities

Barack Obama. The other healthcare policy is the The Indian Health Care Improvement Act of 1976. The IHCIA was mainly made to improve Native American health to a healthy parity and making Native American are responsible for their own health. Unfortunately, many of Native American are not enrolled into the system’s service within the Indian Health service, mainly because of the low income and they can not afford the cost of insurance and medical care. In order to make a health care policy that can address the affordability and quality of care seems a mission impossible to current economic and political aspects. The funding coming from tax which means high taxation means cutting food from the table or educational funding from the youth. The path of seeking for a solution may come as a long and curving road shaped by political wars and economic growth.

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Initial Post

Using 500 to 750 words, address the following:

  • What are the racial and ethnic health disparities in the United States, and why do they exist?
  • What are two policies to address racial and ethnic health disparities? Make clear if they are policies adopted, proposed, or ones you would recommend.

Cite additional sources beyond the Learning Materials for this week.

Replies

Reply to at least two of your classmates. In your reply posts, each reply should be 200 to 400 words. You should cite at least one to two sources that add new information in response to your classmate’s post.

Please refer to the Grading Rubric for details on how this activity will be graded.

Posting to the Discussion Forum

  1. Select the appropriate Thread.
  2. Select Reply.
  3. Create your post.
  4. Select Post to Forum.

It is no secret unfortunately that racial and ethic health disparities exist in the United States. “Health disparities are differences that exist among specific population groups in the United States in the attainment of full health potential that can be measured by differences in incidence, prevalence, mortality, burden of disease, and other adverse health conditions” (Baciu et al., 2017). There are many racial and ethnic health disparities that are noted. There are higher rates of premature death and chronic health conditions compared to whites, African Americans have a higher rate of HIV/AIDS, mortality rates for infants is higher than whites, along with obesity, heart disease and cancer (Baciu et al., 2017). So why do they exist? There are many reasons like, how fragmented the delivery of healthcare is, quality of care received, “stereotyping, stigma, biases, and uncertainty on that part of clinicians can contribute to unequal treatment of patients, as can care that is poorly matches to the needs to undeserved patients. Disparities also may emerge from patient-level factors. For example, minority patients may be more likely to decline recommended services, adhere poorly to treatment regiments, and delay seeking care for symptoms. Studies are needed to better understand how clinicians and patients interact in the health care setting that may result in generating or reducing health care disparities” (Wasserman et al, 2019). “Health disparities are driven by underlying social and economic inequities that are rooted in racism. Addressing disparities is important not only from a social justice standpoint but for improving our nation’s overall health and economic prosperity” (Ndugga & Artiga, 2021). One policy to address health care disparities is the one set forth by the AMA; it is currently a policy adopted. “These policies aim to increase awareness of racial and ethnic disparities in health care among the general public, strengthen patient-provider relationships in publicly funded health plans, and apply the same managed care protections to publicly funded HMO participants that apply to private HMO participants” (AMA, 2021). Another policy implemented is the HHS action plan which is also a policy already adopted. “This first-ever HHS Disparities Action Plan and the NPA Stakeholder Strategy can be used together to coordinate action that will effectively address racial and ethnic health disparities across the country. Furthermore, the HHS Disparities Action Plan builds on national health disparities’ goals and objectives recently unveiled in Health People 2020 and leverages key provisions of the Affordable Care Act and other cutting-edge HHS initiatives” (Health & Human Services, n.d.). These policies have helped decrease some of the health disparities that we see in the United States, but not all of them. There is a long way to go in the Untied States to reach the equality that needs to be achieved. The U.S. needs to make people aware and how they can help, and there needs to be more medical professionals in rural areas to help those who do not have easy access to healthcare. Another implementation that can be made is increase healthcare coverage and making healthcare coverage more readily attainable for those who need help.

Thank you,
Morgan Lening

AMA. (2021). Reducing disparities in health care. Retrieved May 18, 2021, from https://www.ama-assn.org/delivering-care/patient-support-advocacy/reducing-disparities-health-care

Health & Human Services. (2021, May 18). HHS Action Plan to Reduce Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities. Reading presented at HHS Plan Complete.

Ndugga Follow @nambinjn on Twitter and Samantha Artiga Follow @SArtiga2 on Twitter Published: May 11, N., & Artiga, S. (2021, May 12). Disparities in health and health CARE: 5 key questions and answers. Retrieved May 18, 2021, from https://www.kff.org/racial-equity-and-health-policy/issue-brief/disparities-in-health-and-health-care-5-key-question-and-answers/#:~:text=Health%20disparities%20are%20driven%20by%20underlying%20social%20and%20economic%20inequities,overall%20health%20and%20economic%20prosperity.

Wasserman, J., Palmer, R. C., Gomez, M. M., Berzon, R., Ibrahim, S. A., & Ayanian, J. Z. (2019). Advancing health services research to eliminate health Care disparities. American Journal of Public Health, 109(S1). doi:10.2105/ajph.2018.304922

Weinstein, J. N., Geller, A., Negussie, Y., & Baciu, A. (2017). Communities in action: Pathways to health equity. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press.

Note: The value of each of the criterion on this rubric represents a point range (example: 25–20 points, 20–15 points, 15–10 points, 10–0 points).

Discussion Board Rubric – 100 Points
Criteria Exceeds Expectations Meets Expectations Needs Improvement Inadequate Total Points
Quality of Initial Post Initial post is on time and of the correct length (500–750 words).

All components of the initial post requirements are addressed.

Course content synthesis is applied.

References are included according to the Discussion instructions.

25 points

Initial post is on time and of the correct length (500–750 words).

Most components of the initial post requirements are addressed.

Course content synthesis is applied but limited.

References are included according to the Discussion instructions.

20 points

Initial post is one day late.

Does not meet the correct length (500–750 words).

Some components of the initial post requirements are addressed.

Course content synthesis is weak or missing.

References are included but not according to the Discussion instructions.

15 points

Initial post is more than one day late.

Initial post much fewer than (500–750 words).

Few components of the initial post requirements are addressed.

Course content synthesis is missing.

References are not included.

10 points

25
Peer Replies On time.

There was substantial evidence and synthesis of course content utilizing course topics and the introduction of questions and new information.

Replies are 200–400 words.

References are included according to the Discussion instructions.

25 points

On time. There was some evidence and synthesis of course content utilizing course topics and the introduction of questions or new information.

Replies are 200–400 words.

References are included according to the Discussion instructions.

20 points

There was either some synthesis of course content or the introduction of questions or new information.

Replies are less than 200 words.

References are included but not according to the Discussion instructions.

15 points

There was little or no evidence of course content utilizing course topics or the introduction of questions or new information.

Replies are less than 200 words

References are not included.

10 points

25
Frequency of Contribution Initial post with two peer replies posted on two separate days.

25 points

Initial post with two peer replies posted on the same day.

20 points

Initial post with one peer reply.

15 points

Only initial post submitted or only replied to peers.

10 points

25
Organization, Writing Mechanics, and APA Format Clearly organized, no or limited writing mechanics and/or APA errors.

25 points

Clearly organized, few to some writing mechanics and/or APA errors.

20 points

Poorly organized, several to moderate writing mechanics and/or APA errors.

15 points

Poorly organized, many writing mechanics and/or APA errors.

10 points

25
Total points 100
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