# HLT 362 Week 4 Exercise 18, 33 and 36

*HLT 362 Week 4 Exercise 18, 33 and 36*

**Understanding Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) and Post Hoc Analyses**

- Mayland et al. (2014) do not provide the degrees of freedom (
*df*) in their study. Use the degrees of freedom formulas provided at the beginning of this exercise to calculate the group*df*and the error*df*. - What is the
*F*value and*p*value for spiritual need—patient? What do these results mean? - ………… post hoc result for facilities for the hospital with LCP vs. the hospital without LCP (see Table 2)? Is this result statistically significant? In your opinion is this an … finding?
- What are the assumptions for use of ANOVA?
- What variable on Table 3 has the result
*F*= 10.6,*p <*0.0001? What does the result mean? - ANOVA was … by Mayland et al. (2014). Would
*t*-tests have also been appropriate? Provide a rationale for your answer. - What type post hoc analysis was performed? Is the post hoc analysis performed more or less conservative than the Scheffé test?
- State the null hypothesis for care for the three study groups (see Table 2). Should the null hypothesis … accepted or rejected? Provide a rationale for your answer.
- What are the post hoc results for care? Which results are statistically significant? What do the results mean?
- In your opinion, do the study findings presented in Tables 2 and 3 have implications for end-of-life care?

**Calculating Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) and Post Hoc Analyses Following ANOVA**

- Do the data meet criteria for homogeneity of variance? Provide a rationale for your answer.
- If calculating by hand, draw the frequency distribution of the dependent variable, hours worked. What is the shape of the distribution? If using SPSS, what is the result of the Shapiro-Wilk test of normality for the dependent variable
- What are the means for three groups’ hours worked on a job?
- What are the
*F*value and the group and error*df*for this set of data? - Is the
*F*significant at α = 0.05? Specify how you arrived at your answer. - If using SPSS, what is the exact likelihood of obtaining an
*F*value at least as extreme as or as close to the one that was actually observed, assuming that the null hypothesis is true? - Which group worked the most weekly job hours post-treatment? Proved a rationale for your answer.
- Write your interpretation of the results as you would in an APA-formatted journal.
- Is there a difference in your final interpretation when comparing the results of the LSD post hoc test versus Tukey HSD test?
- If the researcher decided to combine the two Treatment as Usual groups to represent an overall “Control” group, then there would be two groups to compare: Supported Employment versus Control. What would be the appropriate statistic to address the difference in hours worked between the two groups?

- The researchers found a significant difference between the two groups (control and treatment) for change in mobility of the women with osteoarthritis (OA) over 12 weeks with the results of F(1, 22) 9.619, p 0.005. Discuss each aspect of these results.
- State the null hypothesis for the Baird and Sands (2004) study that focuses on the effect of the GI with PMR treatment on patients’ mobility level. Should the null hypothesis be … for the difference between the two groups in change in mobility scores over 12 weeks? Provide a rationale for your answer.
- The researchers stated that the participants in the intervention group reported a reduction in mobility difficulty at week 12. Was this result statistically significant, and if so at what probability?
- If the researchers had set the level of significance or = 0.01, would the results of p 0.001 still be statistically significant? Provide a rationale for your answer.
- If F(3, 60) 4.13, p 0.04, and = 0.01, is the result statistically significant? Provide a rationale for your answer. …….. accepted or rejected?
- Can ANOVA … used to test proposed relationships or predicted correlations between variables in a single group? Provide a rationale for your answer.
- If a study had a result of F(2, 147) 4.56, p 0.003, how many groups were in the study, and what was the sample size?
- The researchers state that the sample for their study was 28 women with a diagnosis of OA, and that 18 were randomly assigned to the intervention group and 10 were randomly assigned to the control group. Discuss the study strengths and/or weaknesses in this statement.
- In your opinion, have the researchers established that guided imagery (GI) with progressive muscle relaxation (PMR) reduces pain and decreases mobility difficulties in women with OA?
- The researchers stated that this was a 12-week longitudinal, randomized clinical trial pilot study with 28 women over 65 years of age with the … of OA. What are some of the possible problems or limitations that might occur with this type of study?