Exercise Physiology Assignment

March 6, 2022

Exercise Physiology Assignment

Exercise Physiology Assignment

Exercise Physiology Assignment

What are the two scenarios/environments in which prolonged exercise does not lead to a steady state?

2. Explain the process of using an incremental exercise test to measure VO2 max.

a. What physiological characteristics influence your VO2 max capabilities?

3. What is lactate threshold?

a- How does this threshold differ between trained and untrained?

b- What mechanisms lead to the lactate threshold?

4. What is the Respiratory Exchange Ratio and what does it tell us?

How do you know if you are burning predominantly fat versus carbohydrate?

The ‘classical’ view of maximal oxygen uptake is that maximal rates of oxygen utilization (and sustainable rates of oxidative ATP production) in skeletal muscle are limited under most circumstances by the ability of the heart to deliver oxygen to and be accommodated by the working muscle (Saltin & Strange, 1992; Bassett & Howley, 1997). In some sense, this construct must be true as An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is tjp0586-0025-mu7.jpg is easily altered by manipulations that increase ((Ekblom et al. 1972; Buick et al. 1980; Ekblom & Berglund, 1991) or decrease (Ekblom et al. 1972; Jilka et al. 1988; Pawelczyk et al. 1992; Levine et al. 1996) peripheral oxygen delivery without altering arterial An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is tjp0586-0025-mu8.jpg; and the maximal vasodilatory capacity of skeletal muscle clearly exceeds the ability of the heart to deliver blood and still maintain adequate arterial perfusion pressure (Secher et al. 1977; Richardson et al. 1999).

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Does a true An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is tjp0586-0025-mu9.jpg exist and can we measure it?

Exercise Physiology Assignment

Exercise Physiology Assignment

Some investigators have contended recently though that the absence of a clear and consistent plateau in An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is tjp0586-0025-mu10.jpg with increasing running speed in the early Hill experiments argues that the concept of An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is tjp0586-0025-mu11.jpg is not valid (Noakes, 1997). A number of scholarly reviews and rebuttals have been written about this issue (Saltin & Strange, 1992; Bassett & Howley, 1997, 2000; Bergh et al. 2000; Saltin & Calbet, 2006; Wagner, 2006) and these arguments will not be repeated here. To help answer this particular question and avoid the details of the ‘what limits An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.

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Object name is tjp0586-0025-mu12.jpg’ debate for the moment, let’s assume that there are ‘upstream’ and ‘downstream’ factors that provide oxygen to exercising skeletal muscle and then use it for physical work. The ‘upstream’ factors include all the physiological pathways that transfer O2 from the environment to the blood, pump it to the periphery, and distribute it to and then inside the muscle cells. The ‘downstream’ factors include all the intracellular processes that occur once the O2 molecule is transferred to the inside of the cell for oxidative production of ATP, and the neuromotor events that create calcium influx and muscle contraction.

A large part of the debate instigated by Noakes hinges on whether downstream factors, predominantly muscle motor recruitment, alone drive An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is tjp0586-0025-mu13.jpg, or whether An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is tjp0586-0025-mu14.jpg has upstream limits independent of muscle motor recruitment. Indeed, Noakes has articulated what he considers a ‘new model’ of integrated performance physiology, which he has called The Central Governor Model (Noakes, 1997; Noakes et al. 2001, 2004a; Noakes & St Clair Gibson, 2004). In this formulation, a ‘central governor’ shuts down the body by putting a brake on muscle motor recruitment at very high work rates to avoid a ‘disturbance of homeostasis’. So, during an incremental exercise test, the highest An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is tjp0586-0025-mu15.jpg that is achieved doesn’t really reflect a true maximal ability to transport oxygen to the tissues and use it to make ATP to do physical work, because there remains lots of reserve that subjects don’t ‘choose’ to evoke.

For the purposes of framing the debate, Dr Noakes frequently likes to place investigators into two camps: those who believe the brain plays a role in exercise performance, and those who do not (Noakes et al. 2004b). However this straw man is specious. No one disputes that ‘the brain’ is required to recruit motor units – for example, spinal cord-injured patients can’t run. There is no doubt that motivation is necessary to achieve An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is tjp0586-0025-mu16.jpg. A subject can elect to simply stop exercising on the treadmill while walking slowly because they don’t want to continue; no mystical ‘central governor’ is required to hypothesize or predict a An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is tjp0586-0025-mu17.jpg below maximal achievable oxygen transport in this case.

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