Epidemiological practices and methods assignment

March 6, 2022

Epidemiological practices and methods assignment

Epidemiological practices and methods assignment

Epidemiological practices and methods assignment

When reviewing the goals of Healthy People 2020 (HP2020) on its website, it becomes apparent there are implications of the use of epidemiological data when designing policies and measuring success in achieving public health goals. Evaluate the following overarching HP2020 goals:

  • Attain high-quality, longer lives free of preventable disease, disability, injury, and premature death.
  • Achieve health equity, eliminate disparities, and improve the health of all groups.
  • Create social and physical environments that promote good health for all.
  • Promote quality of life, healthy development, and healthy behaviors across all life stages.

Discuss how epidemiological practices and methods have been used to explore and advance the progress toward achieving these goals. Justify your response with appropriate language from the HP2020 website. Use the keyword HP2020 to search the HP2020 website.

Justify your response using examples and reasoning. Comment on the postings of at least two classmates, explaining whether you agree or disagree with their views.

Evaluation Criteria:

  • Discussed how epidemiologic practices and methods have been used to explore and advance the progress toward achieving overarching HP2020 goals.
  • Justified answers with appropriate research and reasoning by using examples and references from textbooks, the South University Online Library, and other acceptable reference

Proper interpretation of disease-specific epidemiologic data requires information concerning past as well as present occurrence of the disease. An increase in the number of reported cases of a disease that is normal and expected, representing a seasonal pattern of change in host susceptibility, does not constitute an epidemic. Therefore, the regular collection, collation, analysis, and reporting of data concerning the occurrence of a disease is important to properly interpret short-term changes in occurrence.

A sensitive and specific surveillance program is important for the proper interpretation of disease occurrence data. Almost every

Epidemiological practices and methods assignment

Epidemiological practices and methods assignment

country has a national disease surveillance program that regularly collects data on selected diseases. The quality of these programs varies, but, generally, useful data are collected that are important in developing control and prevention measures. There is an international agreement that the occurrence of three diseases—cholera, plague, and yellow fever—will be reported to the World Health Organization in Geneva, Switzerland. In the United States, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), U.S. Public Health Service, and the state health officers of all 50 states have agreed to report the occurrence of 51 diseases weekly and of another 10 diseases annually from the states to the CDC. Many states have regulations or laws that mandate reporting of these diseases and often of other diseases of specific interest to the state health department.

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The methods of case reporting vary within each state. Passive reporting is one of the main methods. In such a case, physicians or personnel in clinics or hospitals report occurrences of relevant diseases by telephone, postcard, or a reporting form, usually at weekly intervals. In some instances, the report may be initiated by the public health or clinical laboratory where the etiologic agent is identified. Some diseases, such as human rabies, must be reported by telephone as soon as diagnosed. In an active surveillance program, the health authority regularly initiates the request for reporting. The local health department may call all or some health care providers at regular intervals to inquire about the occurrence of a disease or diseases. The active system may be used during an epidemic or if accurate data concerning all cases of a disease are desired.

The health care provider usually makes the initial passive report to a local authority, such as a city or county health department. This unit collates its data and sends a report to the next highest health department level, usually the state health department.

The number of cases of each reportable disease are presented weekly, via computer linkage, by the state health department to the CDC. Data are analyzed at each level to develop needed information to assist public health authorities in disease control and prevention. For some diseases, such as hepatitis, the CDC requests preparation of a separate case reporting form containing more specific details.

In addition, the CDC prepares and distributes routine reports summarizing and interpreting the analyses and providing information on epidemics and other appropriate public health matters. Most states and some county health departments also prepare and distribute their own surveillance reports. The CDC publishes Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report,which is available for a small fee from the Massachusetts Medical Society. The CDC also prepares more detailed surveillance reports for specific diseases, as well as an annual summary report, all of which can also be obtained through the Massachusetts Medical Society.

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Posted in nursing by Clarissa