Discussion: Schizophrenia Pharmacological Treatments Presentation Question
Discussion: Schizophrenia Pharmacological Treatments Presentation Question
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Create a 10–12-slide PowerPoint presentation to identify medications associated with a chosen disease or health condition, explain the actions and side effects of the medications, and discuss any controversies related to the medications. Explain a treatment regime, including pharmacology, for the disease or health condition you selected, along with how the treatment regime may affect a client’s lifestyle.By successfully completing this assessment, you will demonstrate your proficiency in the following course competencies and assessment criteria:SHOW LESS
Competency 1: Apply practice guidelines and standards of evidence-based practice related to pharmacology for safe and effective nursing practice.
Identify the pharmacological agents most often used in the treatment of a disease or health condition.
Describe the treatment regime, including pharmacology, most often prescribed for a disease or health condition.
Explain the controversies related to a pharmacological agent.
Competency 2: Explain the relationship between quality patient outcomes, patient safety, and the appropriate use of pharmacology and psychopharmacology.
Explain the types of actions, side effects, indications, and contraindications that may be expected from a pharmacological treatment.
Describe how a treatment regime, including pharmacology, may impact a client’s lifestyle.
Describe how to monitor a client following a prescribed treatment regime, including pharmacology, in order to obtain a quality patient outcome.
Competency 4: Communicate in a manner that is scholarly, professional, and consistent with expectations of a nursing professional.
Write content clearly and logically with correct use of grammar, punctuation, and mechanics.
Correctly format citations and references using current APA style.
CHECK YOUR PROGRESSUse this online tool to track your performance and progress through your course.
By having a thorough understanding of pharmacology, nurses can eliminate possible medication errors in their nursing practices. The basic principles of pharmacology include pharmacokinetics (what the body does to a drug) and pharmacodynamics (what a drug does to the body). Pharmacology plays a significant role in the nursing profession, so it is extremely important for nurses to understand the actions of the pharmacological agents they will administer to patients in order to intervene appropriately if necessary.SHOW LESSAnother critical skill for a nurse is the ability to apply and evaluate evidence-based practices, principles, models, and pharmacological guidelines and protocols commonly used in nursing practice. Understanding how specific protocols and guidelines are developed will aid nurses in treating patients with a multitude of physiological and psychological conditions.Nurses must be able to measure outcomes of pharmacological interventions when caring for patients. The effective use of evidence-based practice guidelines, models, and principles is one way that nurses can analyze quality outcomes for the pharmacological treatments used for patients.Pharmacology includes different categories of major drugs used in the treatment of primary diseases. The same drug may be used to treat more than one disease or condition, while two patients with the same disease may require different drug treatments. In addition, the professional nurse must be aware of what types of things can influence a patient’s response to a drug. Some things are obvious—other medications, for example—while some are less so. Things like age, weight, herbs—even foods people eat every day—can influence how a person responds to a particular drug. At times, even a strong cultural belief can influence how a drug will react. Nurses who administer drugs have a responsibility to assess patients for both the desired response, as well as for any unwanted and potentially harmful reactions that may occur.
Questions to Consider
To deepen your understanding, you are encouraged to consider the questions below and discuss them with a fellow learner, a work associate, an interested friend, or a member of your professional community.
What constitutes a medication error? How can medication errors be prevented?
How do you use evidence-based practice in your workplace?
The following optional resources are provided to support you in completing the assessment or to provide a helpful context. For additional resources, refer to the Research Resources and Supplemental Resources in the left navigation menu of your courseroom.
APA Paper Template.
APA Paper Tutorial.
The following e-books or articles from the Capella University Library are linked directly in this course:
Ward-Abel, N., Vernon, K., & Warner, R. (2014). An exciting era of treatments for relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis. British Journal of Neuroscience Nursing, 10(1), 21–28.
Cohen, M. R. (2015). Medication errors. Nursing, 45(3), 72.
Hernandez, J., Goeckner, B., & Wanzer, L. (2011). Perioperative pharmacology: Pharmacotherapeutics, pharmacokinetics, and pharmacodynamics. AORN Journal, 93(2), 259–266; 267–269 (quiz).
Cooper, G. A. A., Kronstrand, R., & Kintz, P. (2012). Society of Hair Testing guidelines for drug testing in hair. Forensic Science International (Online), 218(1), 20–24.
Drach-Zahavy, A., Somech, A., Admi, H., Peterfreund, H., Peker, H. & Priente, O. (2014). How do we learn from errors? A prospective study of the link between the ward’s learning practices and medication administration errors. International Journal of Nursing Studies, 51(3), 448–457.
Eisenberg, S. (2012). NIOSH safe handling of hazardous drugs guidelines becomes state law. Journal of Infusion Nursing, 35(5), 316–319.
Molloy, L., Field, J., Beckett, P., & Holmes, D. (2012). PRN psychotropic medication and acute mental health nursing: Reviewing the evidence. Journal of Psychosocial Nursing & Mental Health Services, 50(8), 12–15.
Fleming, S., Brady, A., & Malone, A. (2014). An evaluation of the drug calculation skills of registered nurses. Nurse Education in Practice, 14(1), 55–61.
Bench, S., Day, T., & Metcalfe, A. (2013). Randomised controlled trials: An introduction for nurse researchers. Nurse Researcher, 20(5), 38–44.
Jenny, J. L., Jenny, C., Jayadevan, S., Jayakumary, M., Mohamed, A., Arun, S., & Mohamed, F. M. (2012). Nurses opinion on the attributes of polypharmacy in patient safety. Acta Medica Iranica, 50(7), 516–521.
Patel, N. K., Wood, R. C., & Espino, D. V. (2012). Cultural considerations: Pharmacological and nonpharmacological means for improving blood pressure control among Hispanic patients. International Journal of Hypertension, 2012, 831016.
Cleary-Holdforth, J., & Leufer, T. (2013). The strategic role of education in the prevention of medication errors in nursing: Part 2. Nurse Education in Practice, 13(3), 217–220.
Course Library Guide
A Capella University library guide has been created specifically for your use in this course. You are encouraged to refer to the resources in the BSN-FP4016 – Pharmacology for Patient Safety Library Guide to help direct your research.
Access the following resources by clicking the links provided. Please note that URLs change frequently. Permissions for the following links have either been granted or deemed appropriate for educational use at the time of course publication.
Institute for Safe Medication Practices. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://ismp.org/
Healthy People 2020. (2015). Retrieved from http://www.healthypeople.gov/
National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/
Heart Failure Society of America. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.hfsa.org/
You may wish to explore this Web site and review information related to heart failure classification.
Montalvo, I. (2007). The National Database of Nursing Quality Indicators (NDNQI). OJIN: The Online Journal of Issues in Nursing, 12(3).
The resources listed below are relevant to the topics and assessments in this course and are not required. Unless noted otherwise, these materials are available for purchase from the Capella University Bookstore. When searching the bookstore, be sure to look for the Course ID with the specific –FP (FlexPath) course designation.
Burchum, J., & Rosenthal, L. (2016). Lehen’s pharmacology for nursing care (9th ed.). St. Louis, MO: Elsevier Saunders.
Chapters 1, 2, 4, 5, 43, 47, 48, 21, 23, 31, 32, 50, 57, 58, and 76.
Imagine your supervisor has asked you to conduct a lunch and learn session to educate your fellow nursing staff on pharmacological interventions.
Select a disease or health condition that requires pharmacological intervention. You may choose any disease or health condition you wish, but the disease or health condition must be relevant to nurses from a variety of settings (for example: ER, pediatrics, public health, et cetera).
Once you have selected a disease or health condition, create a PowerPoint presentation you could use in your lunch and learn session, including the following:
Identify the disease or health condition you have chosen, along with the areas where nurses are likely to see it. (Do this in the agenda slide or next slide after the agenda.)
Identify the three drugs used most often in the treatment of the disease or health condition.
Explain the types of actions, side effects, indications, and contraindications that could be expected from the pharmacological treatment.
Describe the treatment regime most often prescribed for the disease or health condition. This should include pharmacology but not be limited to pharmacology.
Explain how the treatment regime (including pharmacology) may impact a client’s lifestyle. Consider things such as finances, ease or complexity of administration, instructions (frequency, duration), et cetera.
Describe how a nurse should monitor a client being treated for the disease or health condition in order to obtain a quality patient outcome.
Explain any controversies associated with the drugs used in the treatment. For example, is there a black box warning with any of the drugs?
Use the notes section of each slide to expand your points or draft your mock oral presentation (or both) and reference your resources. Use at least 3 peer-reviewed or professional resources to support your work in this assessment. Be sure your PowerPoint includes a title slide, a slide with your agenda or list of topics to be covered, and a reference slide. Follow current APA style and formatting guidelines for your citations and references.
Number of slides: 10–12, not including the title and reference slides.
Be creative. Consider your intended audience.
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You must proofread your paper. But do not strictly rely on your computer’s spell-checker and grammar-checker; failure to do so indicates a lack of effort on your part and you can expect your grade to suffer accordingly. Papers with numerous misspelled words and grammatical mistakes will be penalized. Read over your paper – in silence and then aloud – before handing it in and make corrections as necessary. Often it is advantageous to have a friend proofread your paper for obvious errors. Handwritten corrections are preferable to uncorrected mistakes.
Use a standard 10 to 12 point (10 to 12 characters per inch) typeface. Smaller or compressed type and papers with small margins or single-spacing are hard to read. It is better to let your essay run over the recommended number of pages than to try to compress it into fewer pages.
Likewise, large type, large margins, large indentations, triple-spacing, increased leading (space between lines), increased kerning (space between letters), and any other such attempts at “padding” to increase the length of a paper are unacceptable, wasteful of trees, and will not fool your professor.
The paper must be neatly formatted, double-spaced with a one-inch margin on the top, bottom, and sides of each page. When submitting hard copy, be sure to use white paper and print out using dark ink. If it is hard to read your essay, it will also be hard to follow your argument.
ADDITIONAL INSTRUCTIONS FOR THE CLASS
Discussion Questions (DQ)
Initial responses to the DQ should address all components of the questions asked, include a minimum of one scholarly source, and be at least 250 words.
Successful responses are substantive (i.e., add something new to the discussion, engage others in the discussion, well-developed idea) and include at least one scholarly source.
One or two sentence responses, simple statements of agreement or “good post,” and responses that are off-topic will not count as substantive. Substantive responses should be at least 150 words.
I encourage you to incorporate the readings from the week (as applicable) into your responses.
Your initial responses to the mandatory DQ do not count toward participation and are graded separately.
In addition to the DQ responses, you must post at least one reply to peers (or me) on three separate days, for a total of three replies.
Participation posts do not require a scholarly source/citation (unless you cite someone else’s work).
Part of your weekly participation includes viewing the weekly announcement and attesting to watching it in the comments. These announcements are made to ensure you understand everything that is due during the week.
APA Format and Writing Quality
Familiarize yourself with APA format and practice using it correctly. It is used for most writing assignments for your degree. Visit the Writing Center in the Student Success Center, under the Resources tab in LoudCloud for APA paper templates, citation examples, tips, etc. Points will be deducted for poor use of APA format or absence of APA format (if required).
Cite all sources of information! When in doubt, cite the source. Paraphrasing also requires a citation.
I highly recommend using the APA Publication Manual, 6th edition.
Use of Direct Quotes
I discourage overutilization of direct quotes in DQs and assignments at the Masters’ level and deduct points accordingly.
As Masters’ level students, it is important that you be able to critically analyze and interpret information from journal articles and other resources. Simply restating someone else’s words does not demonstrate an understanding of the content or critical analysis of the content.
It is best to paraphrase content and cite your source.
For assignments that need to be submitted to LopesWrite, please be sure you have received your report and Similarity Index (SI) percentage BEFORE you do a “final submit” to me.
Once you have received your report, please review it. This report will show you grammatical, punctuation, and spelling errors that can easily be fixed. Take the extra few minutes to review instead of getting counted off for these mistakes.
Review your similarities. Did you forget to cite something? Did you not paraphrase well enough? Is your paper made up of someone else’s thoughts more than your own?
Visit the Writing Center in the Student Success Center, under the Resources tab in LoudCloud for tips on improving your paper and SI score.
The university’s policy on late assignments is 10% penalty PER DAY LATE. This also applies to late DQ replies.
Please communicate with me if you anticipate having to submit an assignment late. I am happy to be flexible, with advance notice. We may be able to work out an extension based on extenuating circumstances.
If you do not communicate with me before submitting an assignment late, the GCU late policy will be in effect.
I do not accept assignments that are two or more weeks late unless we have worked out an extension.
As per policy, no assignments are accepted after the last day of class. Any assignment submitted after midnight on the last day of class will not be accepted for grading.
Communication is so very important. There are multiple ways to communicate with me:
Questions to Instructor Forum: This is a great place to ask course content or assignment questions. If you have a question, there is a good chance one of your peers does as well. This is a public forum for the class.
Individual Forum: This is a private forum to ask me questions or send me messages. This will be checked at least once every 24 hours.
Grading Rubric Guidelines
Performance Category 10 9 8 4 0
Demonstrates achievement of scholarly inquiry for professional and academic decisions. • Provides relevant evidence of scholarly inquiry clearly stating how the evidence informed or changed professional or academic decisions
• Evaluates literature resources to develop a comprehensive analysis or synthesis.
• Uses valid, relevant, and reliable outside sources to contribute to the threaded discussion • Provides relevant evidence of scholarly inquiry but does not clearly state how the evidence informed or changed professional or academic decisions.
• Evaluates information from source(s) to develop a coherent analysis or synthesis.
• Uses some valid, relevant, reliable outside sources to contribute to the threaded discussion. • Discusses using scholarly inquiry but does not state how scholarly inquiry informed or changed professional or academic decisions.
• Information is taken from source(s) with some interpretation/evaluation, but not enough to develop a coherent analysis or synthesis.
• Little valid, relevant, or reliable outside sources are used to contribute to the threaded discussion.
• Demonstrates little or no understanding of the topic. • Discusses using scholarly inquiry but does not state how scholarly inquiry informed or changed professional or academic decisions.
• Information is taken from source(s) without any interpretation/evaluation.
• The posting uses information that is not valid, relevant, or reliable • No evidence of the use of scholarly inquiry to inform or change professional or academic decisions.
• Information is not valid, relevant, or reliable
Performance Category 10 9 8 4 0
Application of Course Knowledge –
Demonstrate the ability to analyze, synthesize, and/or apply principles and concepts learned in the course lesson and outside readings and relate them to real-life professional situations • Posts make direct reference to concepts discussed in the lesson or drawn from relevant outside sources;
• Applies concepts to personal experience in the professional setting and or relevant application to real life. • Posts make direct reference to concepts discussed in the lesson or drawn from relevant outside sources.
• Applies concepts to personal experience in their professional setting and or relevant application to real life
• Interactions with classmates are relevant to the discussion topic but do not make direct reference to lesson content • Posts are generally on topic but do not build knowledge by incorporating concepts and principles from the lesson.
• Does not attempt to apply lesson concepts to personal experience in their professional setting and or relevant application to real life
• Does not demonstrate a solid understanding of the principles and concepts presented in the lesson • Posts do not adequately address the question posed either by the discussion prompt or the instructor’s launch post.
• Posts are superficial and do not reflect an understanding of the lesson content
• Does not attempt to apply lesson concepts to personal experience in their professional setting and or relevant application to real life • Posts are not related to the topics provided by the discussion prompt or by the instructor; attempts by the instructor to redirect the student are ignored
• No discussion of lesson concepts to personal experience in the professional setting and or relevant application to real life
Performance Category 5 4 3 2 0
Replies to each graded thread topic posted by the course instructor, by Wednesday, 11:59 p.m. MT, of each week, and posts a minimum of two times in each graded thread, on separate days.
(5 points possible per graded thread) • Exceeds minimum post requirements
• Replies to each graded thread topic posted by the course instructor, by Wednesday, 11:59 p.m. MT, of each week, and posts three or more times in each graded thread, over three separate days.
• Replies to a post posed by faculty and to a peer
• Summarizes what was learned from the lesson, readings, and other student posts for the week. • Replies to each graded thread topic posted by the course instructor, by Wednesday, 11:59 p.m. MT, of each week, and posts a minimum of two times in each graded thread, on separate days
• Replies to a question posed by a peer
Summarizes what was learned from the lesson, readings, and other student posts for the week. • Meets expectations of 2 posts on 2 different days.
• The main post is not made by the Wednesday deadline
• Does not reply to a question posed by a peer or faculty • Has only one post for the week
• Discussion posts contain few, if any, new ideas or applications; often are a rehashing or summary of other students’ comments • Does not post to the thread
• No connections are made to the topic
Minus 1 Point Minus 2 Point Minus 3 Point Minus 4 Point Minus 5 Point
Grammar, Syntax, APA
Note: if there are only a few errors in these criteria, please note this for the student in as an area for improvement. If the student does not make the needed corrections in upcoming weeks, then points should be deducted.
Points deducted for improper grammar, syntax and APA style of writing.
The source of information is the APA Manual 6th Edition • 2-3 errors in APA format.
• Written responses have 2-3 grammatical, spelling, and punctuation errors.
• Writing style is generally clear, focused, and facilitates communication. • 4-5 errors in APA format.
• Writing responses have 4-5 grammatical, spelling and punctuation errors.
• Writing style is somewhat focused. • 6-7 errors in APA format.
• Writing responses have 6-7 grammatical, spelling and punctuation errors.
• Writing style is slightly focused making discussion difficult to understand. • 8-10 errors in APA format.
• Writing responses have 8-10 grammatical, spelling and punctuation errors.
• Writing style is not focused, making discussion difficult to understand. • Post contains greater than 10 errors in APA format.
• Written responses have more than 10 grammatical, spelling and punctuation errors.
• Writing style does not facilitate communication.
• The student continues to make repeated mistakes in any of the above areas after written correction by the instructor
0 points lost
-5 points lost
Total Participation Requirements
per discussion thread The student answers the threaded discussion question or topic on one day and posts a second response on another day. The student does not meet the minimum requirement of two postings on two different days
Early Participation Requirement
per discussion thread The student must provide a substantive answer to the graded discussion question(s) or topic(s), posted by the course instructor (not a response to a peer), by Wednesday, 11:59 p.m. MT of each week. The student does not meet the requirement of a substantive response to the stated question or topic by Wednesday at 11:59 pm MT.