Discussion Gender Inequality

March 8, 2022
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Discussion Gender Inequality

Discussion Gender Inequality

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Identify how work-based gender inequality contributes to societal gender inequality, presenting how each of the four major forms of discrimination discussed in the text impact structural inequality specifically. Then discuss strategies that attempt to address these issues.

Gender inequality is the social phenomenon in which men and women are not treated equally. The treatment may arise from distinctions regarding biology, psychology, or cultural norms prevalent in the society. Some of these distinctions are empirically grounded, while others appear to be social constructs. Studies show the different experiences of genders across many domains including education, life expectancy, personality, interests, family life, careers, and political affiliation. Gender inequality is experienced differently across different cultures and it also affects non-binary people.

Natural differences exist between the sexes based on biological and anatomic factors, mostly differing reproductive roles. Biological differences include chromosomes and hormonal differences.[1] There is a natural difference also in the relative physical strengths (on average) of the sexes, both in the lower body and more pronouncedly in the upper-body, though this does not mean that any given man is stronger than any given woman.[2][3] Men, on average, are taller, which provides both advantages and disadvantages.[4] Women, on average, live significantly longer than men,[5] though it is not clear to what extent this is a biological difference – see Life expectancy. Men have larger lung volumes and more circulating blood cells and clotting factors, while women have more circulating white blood cells and produce antibodies faster.[6] Differences such as these are hypothesized to be an adaption allowing for sexual specialization.[7]


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Prenatal hormone exposure influences the extent to which a person exhibits typical masculine or feminine traits.[8][9] Negligible differences between males and females exist in general intelligence.[10] Men are significantly more likely to take risks than women.[11] Men are also more likely than women to be aggressive, a trait influenced by prenatal and possibly current androgen exposure.[12][13] It has been theorized that these differences combined with physical differences are an adaption representing sexual division of labor.[7] A second theory proposes sex differences in intergroup aggression represent adaptions in male aggression to allow for territory, resource and mate acquisition.[6] Females are (on average) more empathetic than males, though this does not mean that any given woman is more empathetic than any given man.[14] Men and women have better visuospatial and verbal memory, respectively. These changes are influenced by the male sex hormone testosterone, which increases visuospatial memory in both genders when administered.[15]

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From birth, males and females are socialised differently, and experience different environments throughout their lives. Due to societal influence, gender often greatly influences many major characteristics in life; such as personality.[16] Males and females are led on different paths due to the influences of gender role expectations and gender role stereotypes often before they are able to choose for themselves. For instance, in Western societies,the colour blue is commonly associated with boys, and they are often given toys that are associated with traditional masculine roles, such as machines and trucks. Girls are associated with the colour pink, and are given toys related to traditional feminine roles, such as dolls, dresses, and dollhouses. These influences by parents or other adult figures in the child’s life encourage them to fit into these roles.[17] This tends to affect personality, career paths, or relationships. Throughout life, males and females are seen as two very different species who have very different personalities and should stay on separate paths.[18]

Researcher Janet Hyde found that, although much research has traditionally focused on the differences between the genders, they are actually more alike than different, which is a position proposed by the gender similarities hypothesis.[19]

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