Discussion: Ethical decision making-model

May 12, 2022
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Discussion Ethical decision making-model

Discussion: Ethical decision making-model

Discuss the effectiveness of the approach used by a professional to deal with problems or issues involving ethical practice in a case study.

Summarize the facts in a case study and use the 3 components of an ethical decision-making model to analyze an ethical problem or issue and the factors that contributed to it.

  • The ethical decision making-model:  moral awareness, moral judgement, and ethical behavior needs to be included in this paper
  •  apply more than 2 of the ethical principles: autonomy, and nonmaleficence.
  1. Length: At least 1 page typed, double-spaced pages, not including the title page and reference page.
  2. Font and font size: Times New Roman, 12 point.
  3. APA Template: Use the APA Style Paper Template as the paper format and the APA Style Paper Tutorial for guidance. See the Resources for these documents.
  4. Written communication: Write clearly and logically, with correct use of spelling, grammar, punctuation, and mechanics.
  5. References: Integrate information from outside sources to include at least two references (the case study and an academic peer-reviewed journal article) and three in-text citations within the paper.
  6. APA format: Follow current APA guidelines for in-text citation of outside sources in the body of your paper and also on the reference page. Discussion: Ethical decision making-model.

Ethical Dilemmas And A Decision Making Model Case Study

Excerpt from Case Study :

Counseling — Ethical Dilemma — Case Study

A 17-year-old Jewish female student advises a counselor that she went to a party last weekend with an African-American 17-year-old boy, and ended up passed out in an upstairs bedroom. She was awakened by the boy forcing himself on her. She protested loudly, but said that no one came to help her. The client claims the counselor is the only person she has told that she was raped. For the past five days, she has endured the snickering and sneering of Derrick and his friends in the hallways “as they smugly march around with their worlds intact” while she “dies a little more inside each day.” She says she has been having trouble focusing on school, and she blames herself for the incident, saying she drank way too much even though she doesn’t think she had very much to drink that night. She wonders aloud to the counselor if she could have been drugged. She begs the counselor not to tell anyone, especially her parents. How should the counselor proceed?

B. Body: Corey, Corey and Callanan’s Decision-Making Model

Discussion Ethical decision making-model

Discussion Ethical decision making-model

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The decision-making model chosen is Corey, Corey and Callanan’s eight-step model, which employs the six essential moral principles for ethical decision-making: autonomy; non-maleficence; beneficence; justice; fidelity; and veracity (Corey, Corey, & Callanan, 2011, p. 24). Their model is acknowledged as an effective tool for ethical decision-making because it does not leave the counselor adrift in his/her own values and sometimes arbitrary assessments (Cottone & Claus, 2000, p. 279). The influences of those six moral principles are highlighted in the following employment of the eight-step model: identify the problem or dilemma; identify potential issues involved; review the relevant ethics codes and sections; relevant laws; consult with colleagues; consider possible and probable options; list the implications of the various options; choose the apparently best course of action (Corey, Corey, & Callanan, 2011, pp. 24-6). In addition, the counselor must document his/her work in every step, for at least two reasons: to be more effective as a counselor; to document for other colleagues and professionals, both to assist them and to avoid any negative outcomes in malpractice issues.

1. Identify the Problem or Dilemma

At this step, the counselor gathers as much information as possible and determines whether the situation poses a dilemma that is ethical, legal, clinical, professional and/or moral (Corey, Corey, & Callanan, 2011, p. 24). Briefly, a 17-year-old Jewish female student claims she was sexually assaulted by a 17-year-old black male student while she was in various states of incapacity at party: first passed out; then unable to effectively stop the attack due to consumption of alcohol and possibly being drugged. Her cries for help were ignored and now that she is back in school, the alleged perpetrator and his friends have reportedly been snickering and sneering at her in the hallways “as they smugly march around with their worlds intact” while she “dies a little more inside each day” and has trouble focusing in school. I am the only person she has told, she does not want me to tell anyone else and she at least partially blames herself for drinking alcohol, though she asserts she did not have much to drink and may have been drugged prior to the assault.

This situation poses: an ethical problem regarding confidentiality; a possible legal problem of professional reporting requirements for a sexual assault and possible illegal drugging. and a professional problem, as I’d like to observe the alleged perpetrator and his friends in the halls and if they are snickering and sneering at his victim, I’d like to at least slap each of them in the head and “read the riot act” to them to stop the snicker and sneering.

2. Identify Potential Issues Involved

By examining the information, involving the client as much as possible, list the critical issues and shed the irrelevant ones (Corey, Corey, & Callanan, 2011, pp. 24-5). Here as much as anywhere else in the process, diversity is an important facet, as the counselor considers the rights, responsibilities and welfare of everyone involved in the situation. Diversity issues are woven into the situation because the victim is a Jewish-American teenaged girl whose culture may impose and advance certain attitudes about teenaged sex, sexual assault, a teenaged girl’s responsibilities in exposing herself to possible harm by attending a party and drinking alcohol, and attitudes toward African-American teenaged males. In addition, diversity issues are presented by the alleged perpetrator, who is an African-American teenaged male, whose culture may have differing attitudes about teenaged sex, sexual assault, the girl’s responsibilities in exposing herself to possible harm by attending a party and drinking alcohol, and attitudes toward Jewish-American teenaged girls.

The critical issues are: client confidentiality, as she has asked me to tell no one else about a criminal assault and drugging; and my legal responsibility as a mental health professional to report certain crimes perpetrated against certain individuals. I will forego vengeance (a la Vito Corleone) and discard my wish to confront and personally punish the alleged perpetrator and his friends because my personal feelings about what they’ve done and what should happen to them are inconsequential.

3. Review the Relevant Ethics Codes and Sections

In this step, the counselor finds and considers the applicable ethics code(s) and specifically pertinent sections for the defined issues (Corey, Corey, & Callanan, 2011, p. 25). The American Counseling Association (ACA) is a not-for-profit professional/educational organization that exclusively represents professional counselors and periodically issues a code of ethics to guide professional counselors (American Counseling Association, 2016). The most recent revision of the code is the 2014 Code of Ethics (American Counseling Association, 2014). Several applicable code sections are:

a) Section A — The Counseling Relationship

i. A.1.a – Primary Responsibility

Throughout the entire counseling process, the counselor must be mindful that his/her primary responsibility is to respect the client’s dignity and promote her welfare (American Counseling Association, 2014, p. 4);

ii. A.2.d — Inability to Give Consent

The client is a minor and is legally incapable of giving consent; in addition, the counselor must consider the rights and responsibilities of her parents/family to protect her and make decisions in her behalf (American Counseling Association, 2014, p. 4).

b) Section B — Confidentiality and Privacy

This Code section, several provisions of which are applicable, guides the counselor regarding confidentiality of client information (American Counseling Association, 2014, pp. 6-8). In this situation the counselor especially must:

i. B.1.a – Respect her rights, taking into consideration cultural meanings (here, Jewish-American) of confidentiality and privacy, repeatedly discussing with the client how and to whom information is shared in the course of her treatment (American Counseling Association, 2014, p. 6);

ii. B.1.c – protect the client’s confidential information and disclose it only with appropriate consent or sound legal/ethical justification (American Counseling Association, 2014, p. 7); iii. B.1.d — explain the limitations of confidentiality and the situations in which confidentiality would have to be breached (American Counseling Association, 2014, p. 7);

iv. B.2.e — Advise her ahead of time about any required disclosure and then disclose only essential information (American Counseling Association, 2014, p. 7);

v. B.3.c — If disclosure is required in consultation with colleagues and other professionals, ensure that the confidential information is disclosed in settings that ensure as much privacy and preservation of confidentiality as possible (American Counseling Association, 2014, p. 7);

vi. B.5.a — since this client is legally a minor, she lacks the capacity to give voluntary, informed consent to release confidential information; consequently, the counselor must be guided by law, written policies and ethics (American Counseling Association, 2014, p. 7); vii. B.5.c — particularly in view of disclosure laws that will be addressed below, and since the client is a minor, the counselor must seek permission from a third party to disclose, inform the client of that requirement and continue to safeguard her confidentiality as much as possible (American Counseling Association, 2014, p. 7); viii. B.7.a — Since consultation with other colleagues may be necessary, the counselor must limit disclosure to only information relevant to the consultation and continue safeguarding the client’s identity and other information as much as possible (American Counseling Association, 2014, p. 7);

ix. B.7.b — The counselor must reveal only the information covered by consent, only that which is germane to the consultation and continue to safeguard the client’s identity and other information (American Counseling Association, 2014, p. 7).

c) C.6.b — Reports to Third Parties

If the counselor must report to third parties per the law, for example about the sexual assault and drugging, the counselor must ensure his/her report is accurate, honest and objective (American Counseling Association, 2014, p. 9).

4. Relevant Laws

The counselor must make it his/her business to stay current on applicable laws, using them as part of the process, though not as the end point of counseling (Corey, Corey, & Callanan, 2011, p. 25). The applicable law is found in the Florida State Statutes:Discussion: Ethical decision making-model

Important information for writing discussion questions and participation

Hi Class,

Please read through the following information on writing a Discussion question response and participation posts.

Contact me if you have any questions.

Important information on Writing a Discussion Question

  • Your response needs to be a minimum of 150 words (not including your list of references)
  • There needs to be at least TWO references with ONE being a peer reviewed professional journal article.
  • Include in-text citations in your response
  • Do not include quotes—instead summarize and paraphrase the information
  • Follow APA-7th edition
  • Points will be deducted if the above is not followed

Participation –replies to your classmates or instructor

  • A minimum of 6 responses per week, on at least 3 days of the week.
  • Each response needs at least ONE reference with citations—best if it is a peer reviewed journal article
  • Each response needs to be at least 75 words in length (does not include your list of references)
  • Responses need to be substantive by bringing information to the discussion or further enhance the discussion. Responses of “I agree” or “great post” does not count for the word count.
  • Follow APA 7th edition
  • Points will be deducted if the above is not followed

Welcome to class

Hello class and welcome to the class and I will be your instructor for this course. This is a -week course and requires a lot of time commitment, organization, and a high level of dedication. Please use the class syllabus to guide you through all the assignments required for the course. I have also attached the classroom policies to this announcement to know your expectations for this course. Please review this document carefully and ask me any questions if you do. You could email me at any time or send me a message via the “message” icon in halo if you need to contact me. I check my email regularly, so you should get a response within 24 hours. If you have not heard from me within 24 hours and need to contact me urgently, please send a follow up text to.

I strongly encourage that you do not wait until the very last minute to complete your assignments. Your assignments in weeks 4 and 5 require early planning as you would need to present a teaching plan and interview a community health provider. I advise you look at the requirements for these assignments at the beginning of the course and plan accordingly. I have posted the YouTube link that explains all the class assignments in detail. It is required that you watch this 32-minute video as the assignments from week 3 through 5 require that you follow the instructions to the letter to succeed. Failure to complete these assignments according to instructions might lead to a zero. After watching the video, please schedule a one-on-one with me to discuss your topic for your project by the second week of class. Use this link to schedule a 15-minute session. Please, call me at the time of your appointment on my number. Please note that I will NOT call you.

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Plagiarism is highly prohibited. Please ensure you are citing your sources correctly using APA 7th edition. All assignments including discussion posts should be formatted in APA with the appropriate spacing, font, margin, and indents. Any papers not well formatted would be returned back to you, hence, I advise you review APA formatting style. I have attached a sample paper in APA format and will also post sample discussion responses in subsequent announcements.

Your initial discussion post should be a minimum of 200 words and response posts should be a minimum of 150 words. Be advised that I grade based on quality and not necessarily the number of words you post. A minimum of TWO references should be used for your initial post. For your response post, you do not need references as personal experiences would count as response posts. If you however cite anything from the literature for your response post, it is required that you cite your reference. You should include a minimum of THREE references for papers in this course. Please note that references should be no more than 5 years old except recommended as a resource for the class. Furthermore, for each discussion board question, you need ONE initial substantive response and TWO substantive responses to either your classmates or your instructor for a total of THREE responses. There are TWO discussion questions each week, hence, you need a total minimum of SIX discussion posts for each week. I usually post a discussion question each week. You could also respond to these as it would count towards your required SIX discussion posts for the week.

I understand this is a lot of information to cover in 5 weeks, however, the Bible says in Philippians 4:13 that we can do all things through Christ that strengthens us. Even in times like this, we are encouraged by God’s word that we have that ability in us to succeed with His strength. I pray that each and every one of you receives strength for this course and life generally as we navigate through this pandemic that is shaking our world today. Relax and enjoy the course!

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