Bacteria frequently used in food production assignment

March 6, 2022

Bacteria frequently used in food production assignment

Bacteria frequently used in food production assignment

Bacteria frequently used in food production assignment

Answer Critical Thinking Questions 1 for Chapter 28 on page 817. Answers 

should be submitted in a word document with any associated references used.

Which bacteria seem to be most frequently used in the production of food? Propose an explanation   for this

Microbiology is important to food safety, production, processing, preservation, and storage. Microbes such as bacteria, molds, and yeasts are employed for the foods production and food ingredients such as production of wine, beer, bakery, and dairy products. On the other hand, the growth and contamination of spoilage and pathogenic microorganisms is considered as one of the main causes to loss of foodstuff nowadays. Although technology, hygienic strategies, and traceability are important factors to prevent and delay microbial growth and contamination, food remains susceptible to spoilage and activity of pathogen microorganisms. Food loss by either spoilage or contaminated food affects food industry and consumers leading to economic losses and increased hospitalization costs. This chapter focuses on general aspects, characteristics, and importance of main microorganisms (bacteria, yeasts, molds, virus, and parasites) involved in food spoilage or contamination: known and recently discovered species; defects and alterations in foodstuff; most common food associated with each foodborne disease; resistance to thermal processing; occurrence in different countries; outbreaks; and associated symptoms.

Keywords: Spoilage, molds and yeast, industrial application, gastroenteritis, foodborne outbreak, parasites and viruses, spore-forming bacteria, food contamination

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3.1. Introduction
Food preservation, since ancient times, played a central role in survival of mankind enhancing the safety and stability of different foodstuffs. Traditional techniques used to prevent food deterioration in the past as salting, drying, fermentation, and heating prevail in modern food industry. The knowledge about the main causes of deterioration has increased substantially since then and losses due to spoilage and food contamination were reduced (Gram et al., 2002).

The knowledge about the composition, origin, pH, water activity (a w) of food and storage conditions (e.g., temperature, atmosphere, and pressure) along with the information about the characteristics of most prevalent and resistant microorganism predicts the

Bacteria frequently used in food production assignment

Bacteria frequently used in food production assignment

composition of microflora during processing and storage. From this scenario, the adequate use of technology (such as pasteurization and sterilization), hygienic strategies (e.g., good hygiene practices and good manufacture practices), and traceability (prevent and reduce the distribution of unsafe and poor quality food) can prevent and delay the colonization of spoilage and pathogenic microorganisms in foodstuff. However, food remains susceptible to spoilage and contamination of pathogenic microorganism throughout food chain, retail shops, restaurants, and house of consumers (Aung and Chang, 2014, Gram et al., 2002).

The damage from spoilage and contaminated food affects the food industry (economic loss, damage to reputation, and punishment according to local law) and consumers (Akkerman, Farahani, & Grunow, 2010). The spoilage of food by microbial activity involves many and complex mechanisms wherein the acceptance of sensory attributes decay and consumers reject the food. The presence of visible growth as slime and colonies changes in texture due to degradation of proteins/carbohydrates/lipids, and the perception of off-odors and off-flavors may indicate spoilage by microorganisms (e.g., bacteria and molds) (Gram et al., 2002).

On the other hand, the development, the cross-contamination, and toxin production of pathogenic microorganisms impair the safety of food and impose a risk to health of consumers. The ingestion and colonization of pathogen microorganisms in human digestive tract usually cause gastroenteritis, which is a condition characterized by diarrhea, intestinal cramps, nauseas, vomiting, and fever. The estimation of foodborne diseases in the world is complex but international, national, and local efforts have been made to estimate the burden of foodborne diseases worldwide (Flint et al., 2005). The main agents involved in gastroenteritis are bacteria, although parasites, virus, yeasts, and molds are underrecognized causes of gastroenteritis and they have been becoming more frequent in last decade.

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