Assignment: Patients Article Analysis
Assignment: Patients Article Analysis
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Assignment: Patients Article Analysis
Prostate cancer affects men and occurs in the prostate gland. In the United States, prostate cancer has been ranked as the second leading cause of cancer death in men. According to the 2019 report, at least 174,650 men were diagnosed with prostate cancer and the number of men living with the disease stands at 3.1 million (Jemal & Siegel, 2019). Nevertheless, African American men are disproportionately affected by the diseases and their risk of developing prostate cancer is higher compared to white men. Statistics reveal that in six African American men, one has to develop prostate cancer in his lifetime. Additionally, African American men have higher chances of getting their diagnosis when cancer has advanced. Equally, they have a 1.7 times probability and 2.3 times the likelihood of getting a diagnosis and dying from prostate cancer respectively compared to the white men (Jemal & Siegel, 2019). It is essential to establish what causes the disparities and come up with a solution that can bridge the gap or lessen the prostate cancer burden among African American men.
The increased rate of prostate cancer among African American men is attributed to socioeconomic status, genetic predisposition and more aggressive cancer. Socioeconomic status determines the care one receives and racial and ethnic minorities tend to get lower quality health care compared to whites. African American men face racial bias in terms of preventative care and may not receive the option of having a PSA test or get informed about the benefits of getting the test compared to white men (Taylor et al., 2016). Genetics is also linked to a higher incidence of prostate cancer among African American men. Research indicates that the men have chromosomes 8q24 which is linked to increased cancer risk as well as increased cell apoptosis genes and tumor-suppression genes (Yamoah et al., 2015).
Prostate cancer tends to be aggressive among the African American men which increase the mortality rates. The aggressive nature of the cancer was initially linked to delayed presentation and inadequate screening however research reveals that African American men have a higher incidence of metastatic disease across all age groups (Yamoah et al., 2015). Tumors among the population tend to have higher levels of biomarkers which suggests a more aggressive disease. The racial divide has been reducing since there is a decrease in death rate for all men and the reduction rate is higher among the African American men. The survival rate for African American men diagnosed with prostate cancer is five-years which means that an early diagnosis ensures that the men survive for an extra five years.
The increased prevalence of prostate cancer among African American men can be linked to a lack of access to healthcare, unhealthy lifestyles and limited information about the disease (Taylor et al., 2016). The possible solutions that can reduce the prevalence of the disease are the promotion of a healthy diet and patient education on prostate cancer screening. The most ideal approach is patient education because it can improve the rate of PSA screening among African Americans. PSA screening is essential because it helps in early diagnosis and increases the chances of treating prostate cancer (Fedewa, Ward, Brawley & Jemal, 2017). Screening generally reduces the number of people who succumb to disease as well as the number of people who develop the disease. Nevertheless, the PSA test may predispose patients to false-positive results that create a need for extra tests and possible prostate biopsy as well as overdiagnosis and overtreatment causing erectile dysfunction and incontinence.
Research indicates that knowledge helps in the decision-making process of deciding whether or not to participate in prostate cancer screening (Owens et al., 2015). It is also essential to inform those intending to get screened for prostate cancer on the limitations and advantages of the screening procedures. For instance, black men should begin their screening at 45 years and 40 years for men with a family history of family cancer. Black men are categorized as at-risk group and education will help them make informed decisions on screening.
To establish the effectiveness of patient education among African American men a PICOT statement will be used. The PICOT statement is:
Among African American men (P), does patient education (I) compared to no education (C) on prostate cancer screening improve the rate of PSA screening (O) within a period of six months (T)?
Patient education incorporates health policies and goals that ensure health care equity. For African Americans, limited knowledge of prostate cancer has been cited as a cause of a higher disease incidence. Patient education will help them make informed decisions. It will help them gain more insight on care and potential treatment options as well as adopt PSA screening as a measure to detect prostate cancer on time and enhance their quality of life.
Fedewa, S. A., Ward, E. M., Brawley, O., & Jemal, A. (2017). Recent patterns of prostate-specific antigen testing for prostate cancer screening in the United States. JAMA internal medicine, 177(7), 1040-1042.
Jemal, A., & Siegel, R. (2019). Focus 7. Social inequalities in cancer burden between Black and White populations in the USA. 150 cours Albert Thomas, 69372 Lyon Cedex 08, France© International Agency for Research on Cancer, 2019 Distributed by WHO Press, World Health Organization, 20 Avenue Appia, 1211 Geneva 27, Switzerland, 159.
Owens, O. L., Jackson, D. D., Thomas, T. L., Friedman, D. B., & Hébert, J. R. (2015). Prostate cancer knowledge and decision making among African-American men and women in the southeastern United States. International journal of men’s health, 14(1), 55.
Taylor, K. L., Turner, R. O., Davis III, J. L., Johnson, L., Schwartz, M. D., Kerner, J., & Leak, C. (2016). Improving knowledge of the prostate cancer screening dilemma among African American men: an academic-community partnership in Washington, DC. Public Health Reports.
Yamoah, K., Johnson, M. H., Choeurng, V., Faisal, F. A., Yousefi, K., Haddad, Z., & Feldman, M. (2015). Novel biomarker signature that may predict aggressive disease in African American men with prostate cancer. Journal of Clinical Oncology, 33(25), 2789.
I’m stuck on a Health & Medical question and need an explanation.
The interpretation of research in health care is essential to decision making. By understanding research, health care providers can identify risk factors, trends, outcomes for treatment, health care costs and best practices. To be effective in evaluating and interpreting research, the reader must first understand how to interpret the findings. You will practice article analysis in Topics 2, 3, and 5.
For this assignment:
Search the GCU Library and find three different health care articles that use quantitative research. Do not use articles that appear in the Topic Materials or textbook. Complete an article analysis for each using the “Article Analysis 1” template.
Refer to the “Patient Preference and Satisfaction in Hospital-at-Home and Usual Hospital Care for COPD Exacerbations: Results of a Randomised Controlled Trial,” in conjunction with the “Article Analysis Example 1,” for an example of an article analysis.
While APA style is not required for the body of this assignment, solid academic writing is expected, and documentation of sources should be presented using APA formatting guidelines, which can be found in the APA Style Guide, located in the Student Success Center.
This assignment uses a rubric. Please review the rubric prior to beginning the assignment to become familiar with the expectations for successful completion.
You are required to submit this assignment to LopesWrite. Refer to the LopesWrite Technical Support articles for assistance.
You must proofread your paper. But do not strictly rely on your computer’s spell-checker and grammar-checker; failure to do so indicates a lack of effort on your part and you can expect your grade to suffer accordingly. Papers with numerous misspelled words and grammatical mistakes will be penalized. Read over your paper – in silence and then aloud – before handing it in and make corrections as necessary. Often it is advantageous to have a friend proofread your paper for obvious errors. Handwritten corrections are preferable to uncorrected mistakes.
Use a standard 10 to 12 point (10 to 12 characters per inch) typeface. Smaller or compressed type and papers with small margins or single-spacing are hard to read. It is better to let your essay run over the recommended number of pages than to try to compress it into fewer pages.
Likewise, large type, large margins, large indentations, triple-spacing, increased leading (space between lines), increased kerning (space between letters), and any other such attempts at “padding” to increase the length of a paper are unacceptable, wasteful of trees, and will not fool your professor.
The paper must be neatly formatted, double-spaced with a one-inch margin on the top, bottom, and sides of each page. When submitting hard copy, be sure to use white paper and print out using dark ink. If it is hard to read your essay, it will also be hard to follow your argument.
ADDITIONAL INSTRUCTIONS FOR THE CLASS
Discussion Questions (DQ)
Initial responses to the DQ should address all components of the questions asked, include a minimum of one scholarly source, and be at least 250 words.
Successful responses are substantive (i.e., add something new to the discussion, engage others in the discussion, well-developed idea) and include at least one scholarly source.
One or two sentence responses, simple statements of agreement or “good post,” and responses that are off-topic will not count as substantive. Substantive responses should be at least 150 words.
I encourage you to incorporate the readings from the week (as applicable) into your responses.
Your initial responses to the mandatory DQ do not count toward participation and are graded separately.
In addition to the DQ responses, you must post at least one reply to peers (or me) on three separate days, for a total of three replies.
Participation posts do not require a scholarly source/citation (unless you cite someone else’s work).
Part of your weekly participation includes viewing the weekly announcement and attesting to watching it in the comments. These announcements are made to ensure you understand everything that is due during the week.
APA Format and Writing Quality
Familiarize yourself with APA format and practice using it correctly. It is used for most writing assignments for your degree. Visit the Writing Center in the Student Success Center, under the Resources tab in LoudCloud for APA paper templates, citation examples, tips, etc. Points will be deducted for poor use of APA format or absence of APA format (if required).
Cite all sources of information! When in doubt, cite the source. Paraphrasing also requires a citation.
I highly recommend using the APA Publication Manual, 6th edition.
Use of Direct Quotes
I discourage overutilization of direct quotes in DQs and assignments at the Masters’ level and deduct points accordingly.
As Masters’ level students, it is important that you be able to critically analyze and interpret information from journal articles and other resources. Simply restating someone else’s words does not demonstrate an understanding of the content or critical analysis of the content.
It is best to paraphrase content and cite your source.
For assignments that need to be submitted to LopesWrite, please be sure you have received your report and Similarity Index (SI) percentage BEFORE you do a “final submit” to me.
Once you have received your report, please review it. This report will show you grammatical, punctuation, and spelling errors that can easily be fixed. Take the extra few minutes to review instead of getting counted off for these mistakes.
Review your similarities. Did you forget to cite something? Did you not paraphrase well enough? Is your paper made up of someone else’s thoughts more than your own?
Visit the Writing Center in the Student Success Center, under the Resources tab in LoudCloud for tips on improving your paper and SI score.
The university’s policy on late assignments is 10% penalty PER DAY LATE. This also applies to late DQ replies.
Please communicate with me if you anticipate having to submit an assignment late. I am happy to be flexible, with advance notice. We may be able to work out an extension based on extenuating circumstances.
If you do not communicate with me before submitting an assignment late, the GCU late policy will be in effect.
I do not accept assignments that are two or more weeks late unless we have worked out an extension.
As per policy, no assignments are accepted after the last day of class. Any assignment submitted after midnight on the last day of class will not be accepted for grading.
Communication is so very important. There are multiple ways to communicate with me:
Questions to Instructor Forum: This is a great place to ask course content or assignment questions. If you have a question, there is a good chance one of your peers does as well. This is a public forum for the class.
Individual Forum: This is a private forum to ask me questions or send me messages. This will be checked at least once every 24 hours.