Assignment: Obesity Presentation: Pathophysiology, Risk Assessment, and Prevalence

May 12, 2022
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Assignment Obesity Presentation Pathophysiology, Risk Assessment, and Prevalence

Assignment: Obesity Presentation: Pathophysiology, Risk Assessment, and Prevalence

Note: This is an individual assignment. Based on the feedback offered by the provider, identify the best approach for teaching. Prepare a presentation to accompany the teaching plan and present the information to your community. Select one of the following options for delivery of the presentation:

  1. PowerPoint presentation – no more than 30 minutes
  2. Pamphlet presentation – 1 to 2 pages
  3. Poster presentation

Appropriate community settings include:

  1. Public health clinic
  2. Community health center
  3. Long-term care facility
  4. Transitional care facility
  5. Home health center
  6. University/School health center
  7. Church community
  8. Adult/Child care center

Before presenting information to the community, seek approval from an agency administrator or representative.

Upon receiving approval from the agency, include the “Community Teaching Experience Form” as part of your assignment submission.

While APA style is not required for the body of this assignment, solid academic writing is expected, and documentation of sources should be presented using APA formatting guidelines, which can be found in the APA Style Guide, located in the Student Success Center.

Select one of the following alterations of cardiovascular disorders: peripheral arterial disease, myocardial infarction, coronary artery disease, congestive heart failure, or dysrhythmia. Think about how hypertension or dyslipidemia can lead to the alteration you selected.

Post a description of the pathophysiology of cardiovascular disorders, including how the factor you selected might impact the pathophysiology. Then, explain how hypertension or dyslipidemia can lead to the alteration you selected for patients with the factor you identified.

Obesity: Pathophysiology, Risk Assessment, and Prevalence – PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Title: Obesity: Pathophysiology, Risk Assessment, and Prevalence

1
Obesity Pathophysiology, Risk Assessment, and
Prevalence
2
Obesity

  • Excessive amount of body fat
  • Women with gt 35 body fat
  • Men with gt 25 body fat
  • Increased risk for health problems
  • Are usually overweight, but can have healthy BMI
    and high fat
  • Measurements using calipers

3
Desirable Body Fat

  • Men 8-25
  • Women 20-35

4
Regional Distribution

  • The regional distribution of body fat affects
    risk factors for the heart disease and type 2
    diabetes

5
Body Fat Distribution Gynecoid

  • Lower-body obesity–Pear shape
  • Encouraged by estrogen and progesterone
  • Less health risk than upper-body obesity
  • After menopause, upper-body obesity appears

6
Body Fat Distribution Android

  • Upper-body obesity–apple shape
  • Associated with more heart disease, HTN, Type II
    Diabetes
  • Abdominal fat is released right into the liver
  • Encouraged by testosterone and excessive alcohol
    intake
  • Defined as waist measurement of gt 40 for men and
    gt35 for women

7
Body Fat Distribution
8
Weight Management

  • Balancing energy intake and energy expenditure is
    the basis of weight management throughout life

9
Set Point Theory

  • Body tends to preserve a given weight
  • Energy expenditure increases and decreases with
    weight loss and gain
  • Effect may be temporary, e.g. energy needs drop
    during calorie restriction and normalize when
    energy balance is achieved

10
Components of Energy Expenditure

  • Resting energy expenditure expressed as RMR
  • Energy expended in voluntary activity
  • Thermic effect of food (TEF) or diet-induced
    thermogenesis (DIT)
  • Related to energy value of food consumed and
    adaptive response to overeating
  • TEF may decline as day progresses (Romon, AJCN,
    1993)

11

Assignment Obesity Presentation Pathophysiology, Risk Assessment, and Prevalence

Assignment Obesity Presentation Pathophysiology, Risk Assessment, and Prevalence

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Resting Metabolic Rate

  • Increases with increased muscle mass
  • Declines with age
  • Declines during restriction of energy intake (up
    to 15)
  • Explains 60-70 of total energy expenditure. Obesity Presentation Assignment: Pathophysiology, Risk Assessment and Prevalence

12
Voluntary Energy Expenditure (activity
thermogenesis)

  • The most variable component of energy expenditure
  • Accounts for 15-30 of total
  • Most of us will require increasing voluntary
    energy expenditure as we age to offset declining
    fat free mass and RMR in order to maintain weight

13
Role of Brain Neurotransmitters

  • Neurotransmitters govern the bodys response to
    starvation and dietary intake
  • Decreases in serotonin and increases in
    neuropeptide Y are associated with an increase in
    carbohydrate appetite
  • Neuropeptide Y increases during deprivation may
    account for increase in appetite after dieting
  • Cravings for sweet high-fat foods among obese and
    bulimic patients may involve the endorphin system

14
Hormonal Regulation of Body Weight

  • Norepinephrine and dopaminereleased by
    sympathetic nervous system in response to dietary
    intake
  • Fasting and semistarvation lead to decreased
    levels of these neurotransmittersmore
    epinephrine is made and substrate is mobilized.

15
Hormones and Weight

  • Hypothyroidism may diminish adaptive
    thermogenesis
  • Insulin resistance may impair adaptive
    thermogenesis
  • Leptin is secreted in proportion to percent
    adipose tissue and may regulate (decrease)
    appetite

16
Hunger vs. Satiety

  • Satietypostprandial state when excess food is
    being stored
  • Hungerpostabsorptive state when stores are being
    mobilized
  • Short-term regulation affected

17
Hunger vs. Satietycontd

  • Feedback mechanism with signal from adipose mass
    when weight loss occurseating is the natural
    result
  • Not always identified in the elderly
  • This occurs mostly in young people
  • Long-term regulation affected

18
Nature vs Nurture

  • Identical twins raised apart have similar weights
  • Genetics account for 40-70 of weight
    differences
  • Genes affect metabolic rate, fuel use, brain
    chemistry, body shape
  • Thrifty metabolism gene allows for more fat
    storage to protect against famine

19
Nature vs Nurture

  • Obesity tends to run in families
  • If both parents are normal weight 10 chance of
    obesity in offspring
  • If one parent is obese 40 chance
  • If both parents obese 80 chance
  • Is it genetics or learned eating behavior? Obesity Presentation Assignment: Pathophysiology, Risk Assessment and Prevalence

20
Nurture vs Nature

  • Environmental factors influence weight
  • Learned eating habits
  • Activity factor (or lack of)
  • Poverty and obesity
  • Female obesity is rooted in childhood obesity
  • Male obesity appears after age 30

21
Nurture vs Nature

  • Overeating learned early in childhood
  • Bottle vs breast
  • Urging children to eat more, clean their plates
  • Use of food as a reward

22
Food Love
Shelly Thorene Photography
23
Nature and Nurture

  • Obesity is nurture allowing nature to express
    itself
  • Location of fat is influenced by genetics
  • A child of obese parents must always be concerned
    about his weight

24
Nature and Nurture

  • The influence of environment is apparent in the
    fact that the prevalence of obesity has increased
    dramatically in the US in the past 40 years

25
Causes of Obesity
26
Causes of Excessive Energy Intake

  • Active large portion sizes, frequent meals and
    snacks
  • Passive excessive intake of energy-dense foods
    containing hidden calories
  • Variety of options the greater the variety of
    foods offered, the greater the intake
  • Sensory-specific satiety as foods are consumed
    they become less appealing

27
Low Energy Expenditure

  • There is a mismatch between our thrifty metabolic
    genetic heritage and the sedentary American
    lifestyle

28
Obesity is a Growing Problem

  • 127 million adults in the U.S. are overweight, 60
    million obese, and 9 million severely obese.
  • 66 percent of U.S. adults are overweight (BMI25)
  • 32 percent are obese (BMI30)
  • 17 of children and adolescents ages 2-19 are
    overweight

29
Obesity Trends Among U.S. Adults BRFSS
30
Prevalence of Obesity in Ohio
31
Obesity A Major Health Issue

  • Obesity is the No. 2 preventable cause of death
    and disability (smoking is 1)
  • Obesity is associated with increased risk of
    heart disease, stroke, gallbladder disease,
    cancer, osteoarthritis, sleep apnea
  • Obesity-related health problems cost 75 billion
    annually (2003 data)
  • The public pays about 39 billion a year — or
    about 175 per person — for obesity through
    Medicare and Medicaid programs

32
Health Problems Associated with Excess Body Fat

  • Surgical risk
  • Lung (pulmonary) disease
  • Sleep apnea
  • HTN
  • CVD
  • Bone and joint disorders (gout, osteoarthritis)
  • Type 2 diabetes
  • Gallstones
  • Cancers (breast, colon, pancreas, gallbladder)
  • Infertility
  • Pregnancy- difficult delivery
  • Reduced agility
  • Early death

33
NHANES III Prevalence of Hypertension According
to BMI
Percent
Defined as mean systolic blood pressure ?140 mm
Hg, mean diastolic ?90 mm Hg, or currently
taking antihypertensive medication.
Brown C et al. Body Mass Index and the
Prevalence of Hypertension and Dyslipidemia.
Obes Res. 20008605-619.
34
Obesity and Diabetes Risk
Incidence of New Cases per 1,000 Person-Years
BMI Levels
Knowler WC et al. Am J Epidemiol
1981113144-156.
35
Weight Gain and Diabetes Risk
Weight Change Since Age 21
Relative Risk
Body Mass Index at Age 21
Adapted from Chan JM et al. Diabetes Care
199417960-969.
36
Metabolic Syndrome Criteria

  • Three or more of the following abnormalities
  • Waist circumference gt102 cm (40 inches) in men
    and gt 88 cm (35 inches) in women
  • Serum triglycerides of at least 150 mg/dL
  • High density lipoprotein level lt40 mg/dL in men
    and lt50 mg/dL in women
  • Blood pressure gt135/85 mm/hg
  • Serum glucose gt110 mg/dl
  • Includes 47 million US residents (27.7 of the
    population
  • Obesity Presentation Assignment: Pathophysiology, Risk Assessment and Prevalence

ATP III Guidelines. National Cholesterol
Education Program, 2001
37
Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS)

  • Endocrine disorder characterized by
    hyperandrogenism and insulin resistance
  • Associated with android obesity
  • Affects 5-10 of reproductive age women
  • Erratic menstrual periods, chronic anovulations
    resulting in multiple ovarian cysts
    infertility, acne, hirsutism and alopecia
  • Increased risk of heart disease, type 2 diabetes,
    reproductive cancers

38
Management of PCOS

  • Symptom oriented, as etiology is unclear
  • Individualized diet and exercise plan to promote
    weight loss and normalize insulin levels
  • Medications to alleviate symptoms

39
26 -Year Incidence of Coronary Heart Disease in
Men
Incidence/1,000
BMI Levels
Adapted from Hubert HB et al. Circulation
198367968-977. Metropolitan Relative Weight of
110 is a BMI of approximately 25.
40
26 -Year Incidence of Coronary Heart Disease in
Women
Incidence/1,000
BMI Levels
Adapted from Hubert HB et al. Circulation
198367968-977. Metropolitan Relative Weight
of 110 is a BMI of approximately 25.
41
Hypertension
60
50
40
Percentage
30
20
10
20
25
30
35
40
BMI
Relationship between BMI and crude percentage of
women reporting medical problems, surgical
procedures, symptoms, and health care utilization.
Brown WJ et al. Int J Obes 199822520-528.
42
Diabetes
15
10
Percentage
5
0
20
25
30
35
40
BMI
Relationship between BMI and crude percentage of
women reporting medical problems, surgical
procedures, symptoms, and health care utilization.
Brown WJ et al. Int J Obes 199822520-528.
43
Cholescystectomy
25
20
Percentage
15
10
5
20
25
30
35
40
BMI
Relationship between BMI and crude percentage of
women reporting medical problems, surgical
procedures, symptoms, and health care utilization.
Brown WJ et al. Int J Obes 199822520-528.
44
Back Pain
35
30
Percentage
25
20
15
20
25
30
35
40
BMI
Relationship between BMI and crude percentage of
women reporting medical problems, surgical
procedures, symptoms, and health care utilization.
Brown WJ et al. Int J Obes 199822520-528.
45
Body Mass Index and Mortality Risk
(Adapted from Bray GA. Gray DS, Obesity, part 1
Pathogenesis. West J Med 149429, 1988 and Lew
EA, Garfinkle L Variations in mortality by
weight among 750,000 men and women. J Clin
Epidemiol 32563, 1979.)
46
BMI and Health
Below 18.5 Underweight
18.5 24.9 Normal
25.0 29.9 Overweight Monitor for risk
30.0 and Above Obese Increased health risk
40.0 and above Severely obese Major health risk. Obesity Presentation Assignment: Pathophysiology, Risk Assessment and Prevalence.

Important information for writing discussion questions and participation

Hi Class,

Please read through the following information on writing a Discussion question response and participation posts.

Contact me if you have any questions.

Important information on Writing a Discussion Question

  • Your response needs to be a minimum of 150 words (not including your list of references)
  • There needs to be at least TWO references with ONE being a peer reviewed professional journal article.
  • Include in-text citations in your response
  • Do not include quotes—instead summarize and paraphrase the information
  • Follow APA-7th edition
  • Points will be deducted if the above is not followed

Participation –replies to your classmates or instructor

  • A minimum of 6 responses per week, on at least 3 days of the week.
  • Each response needs at least ONE reference with citations—best if it is a peer reviewed journal article
  • Each response needs to be at least 75 words in length (does not include your list of references)
  • Responses need to be substantive by bringing information to the discussion or further enhance the discussion. Responses of “I agree” or “great post” does not count for the word count.
  • Follow APA 7th edition
  • Points will be deducted if the above is not followed

Welcome to class

Hello class and welcome to the class and I will be your instructor for this course. This is a -week course and requires a lot of time commitment, organization, and a high level of dedication. Please use the class syllabus to guide you through all the assignments required for the course. I have also attached the classroom policies to this announcement to know your expectations for this course. Please review this document carefully and ask me any questions if you do. You could email me at any time or send me a message via the “message” icon in halo if you need to contact me. I check my email regularly, so you should get a response within 24 hours. If you have not heard from me within 24 hours and need to contact me urgently, please send a follow up text to.

I strongly encourage that you do not wait until the very last minute to complete your assignments. Your assignments in weeks 4 and 5 require early planning as you would need to present a teaching plan and interview a community health provider. I advise you look at the requirements for these assignments at the beginning of the course and plan accordingly. I have posted the YouTube link that explains all the class assignments in detail. It is required that you watch this 32-minute video as the assignments from week 3 through 5 require that you follow the instructions to the letter to succeed. Failure to complete these assignments according to instructions might lead to a zero. After watching the video, please schedule a one-on-one with me to discuss your topic for your project by the second week of class. Use this link to schedule a 15-minute session. Please, call me at the time of your appointment on my number. Please note that I will NOT call you.

Please, be advised I do NOT accept any assignments by email. If you are having technical issues with uploading an assignment, contact the technical department and inform me of the issue. If you have any issues that would prevent you from getting your assignments to me by the deadline, please inform me to request a possible extension. Note that working fulltime or overtime is no excuse for late assignments. There is a 5%-point deduction for every day your assignment is late. This only applies to approved extensions. Late assignments will not be accepted.

If you think you would be needing accommodations due to any reasons, please contact the appropriate department to request accommodations.

Plagiarism is highly prohibited. Please ensure you are citing your sources correctly using APA 7th edition. All assignments including discussion posts should be formatted in APA with the appropriate spacing, font, margin, and indents. Any papers not well formatted would be returned back to you, hence, I advise you review APA formatting style. I have attached a sample paper in APA format and will also post sample discussion responses in subsequent announcements.

Your initial discussion post should be a minimum of 200 words and response posts should be a minimum of 150 words. Be advised that I grade based on quality and not necessarily the number of words you post. A minimum of TWO references should be used for your initial post. For your response post, you do not need references as personal experiences would count as response posts. If you however cite anything from the literature for your response post, it is required that you cite your reference. You should include a minimum of THREE references for papers in this course. Please note that references should be no more than 5 years old except recommended as a resource for the class. Furthermore, for each discussion board question, you need ONE initial substantive response and TWO substantive responses to either your classmates or your instructor for a total of THREE responses. There are TWO discussion questions each week, hence, you need a total minimum of SIX discussion posts for each week. I usually post a discussion question each week. You could also respond to these as it would count towards your required SIX discussion posts for the week.

I understand this is a lot of information to cover in 5 weeks, however, the Bible says in Philippians 4:13 that we can do all things through Christ that strengthens us. Even in times like this, we are encouraged by God’s word that we have that ability in us to succeed with His strength. I pray that each and every one of you receives strength for this course and life generally as we navigate through this pandemic that is shaking our world today. Relax and enjoy the course!

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